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Topic: Electricity Update Pt 9

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DunkingDan

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A Decade of Turmoil: How Nuclear and Coal Have Struggled to Survive
« Reply #28 on: January 04, 2020, 01:44:43 PM »
The past 10 years have been filled with trials and tribulations for both the nuclear and coal power industries. From accidents to plant closures there has been little to cheer about. Still, nuclear and coal power continue to provide reliable baseload generation to billions of customers around the globe. Here’s a look back at the decade that was.
Nuclear Power: Promises and Pitfalls
The 2010s began with the power industry in the midst of a “nuclear renaissance.” Nuclear power had emerged from a long slumber in the U.S. Ground had been broken on the Vogtle expansion in August 2009, which was the first new nuclear power project to commence construction in the U.S. since the Shearon Harris plant received its permit in 1978.
But the renaissance was short lived. On March 11, 2011, the Great Tōhoku Earthquake—a magnitude 9.0 temblor called “Japan’s most forceful quake” in recorded history—generated a series of tsunami waves that reached run-up heights as high as 39 meters (128 feet), setting off the worst nuclear disaster in 25 years. Three units at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear station overheated, melting each reactor’s core to some degree, then hydrogen explosions spread radioactive contamination throughout the area. The accident wreaked havoc on the industry and played a role in at least a few countries’ decisions to cut back reliance on nuclear power.
In Germany and Switzerland, for example, leaders moved to phase nuclear power completely out of their generation portfolios following the Fukushima accident. Germany had 17 operational reactors when the meltdown occurred. Philippsburg 2, a 1,468-MW pressurized water reactor (PWR) commissioned in 1984, was permanently shut down on Dec. 31, 2019, leaving six units still in service today. All are expected to be retired by the end of 2022.
Likewise, Switzerland is closing all of its nuclear plants, albeit over a longer timeframe. On Dec. 20, 2019, the smallest Swiss unit—the 355-MW Mühleberg nuclear power plant (Figure 1), commissioned in 1972—was shuttered, leaving four reactors in operation: two 365-MW PWRs at Beznau, a 1,000-MW PWR at Gösgen, and a 1,275-MW boiling water reactor at Leibstadt. All are expected to close by 2045.


 
 
1. Construction on the Mühleberg nuclear power plant began in March 1967. The Swiss unit entered commercial operation in November 1972. It was retired on Dec. 20, 2019. Courtesy: BKW
Lawmakers in Japan and France have also called for a reduction in the use of nuclear power. Japan had 54 operational reactors prior to the accident. All were taken offline for safety reviews by May 2012. The process of bringing units back online has been excruciating. Today, nine units have been returned to service; six others have met the new standards, but haven’t restarted for various reasons; 18 units are either still under review or have yet to file a restart application; and 21 reactors have been permanently retired.
The French, meanwhile, have depended heavily on nuclear power for decades, generating 70% to 75% of their electricity from the power source regularly. France has 58 operational reactors and one—Flamanville Unit 3—under construction. However, in November 2018, French President Emmanuel Macron announced that 14 reactors would be shuttered by 2035, as the country aims to cut nuclear power’s share of the mix to 50%.
While Japan’s reluctance to restart units following the Fukushima catastrophe is clearly understandable, there is more working against nuclear power in France than just the accident. The discovery of widespread carbon segregation problems in critical nuclear plant components in 2016 crippled the French power industry, and the Flamanville 3 project has been a disaster. Started in 2007, Flamanville 3 has experienced countless delays and significant cost overruns. The latest estimates suggest the unit will not enter service until the end of 2022.

 
More at Pages:


President Harry S. Truman said: “The fundamental basis of this nation’s laws was given to Moses on the Mount.  The fundamental basis of our Bill of Rights comes from the teachings…  If we don't have the proper fundamental moral background, we will finally wind up with a totalitarian government which does not believe in rights for anybody except the state.”

DunkingDan

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Korea, Saudi Arabia progress with SMART collaboration
« Reply #29 on: January 08, 2020, 01:58:34 PM »
A revised pre-project engineering contract has been signed by South Korea's Ministry of Science and ICT (MSIT) and Saudi Arabia's King Abdullah City for Atomic and Renewable Energy (KA-CARE) to establish a joint entity for the commercialisation and construction of the Korean-designed SMART small modular reactor in Saudi Arabia.

The ministry said the amendment had been made in response to a request from Saudi Arabia that Korea Hydro & Nuclear Power (KHNP) participates in the project as the company's experience in the construction and operation of power reactors would reduce risks in the construction of the first SMART unit.
Under the revised pre-project engineering (PPE) contract, before the launch of the joint venture - named SMART EPC - KHNP will lead projects to refine the reactor design, license its use for deployment in Saudi Arabia and develop business models and infrastructure, as well as promote the export of the technology to other countries.
South Korea and Saudi Arabia have also agreed to shorten the review process to accelerate the construction of the Saudi demonstration unit and acquire a standard design approval for SMART for easier exports of the reactor. The revised PPE contract sets out the scope of work to be carried out by KA-CARE, KHNP and Korea Electric Power Corporation to achieve this. It also sets out the allocation of financial resources.
"We will reorganise the project promotion system by clarifying the participation and role of KHNP through the revision of the PPE agreement and the signing of the standard design approval agreement," said MSIT director Choi Won-ho. He said the revision will enhance nuclear cooperation between South Korea and Saudi Arabia and bolster the joint promotion of SMART.
SMART (System-integrated Modular Advanced Reactor) is a 330 MWt pressurised water reactor with integral steam generators and advanced safety features. The unit is designed for electricity generation (up to 100 MWe) as well as thermal applications, such as seawater desalination, with a 60-year design life and three-year refuelling cycle. While the basic design is complete, development had been stalled by the absence of any orders for an initial reference unit. Developed by the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI), SMART received standard design approval from the Korean regulator in mid-2012. KAERI had planned to build a demonstration plant to operate from 2017.
Researched and written by World Nuclear News

President Harry S. Truman said: “The fundamental basis of this nation’s laws was given to Moses on the Mount.  The fundamental basis of our Bill of Rights comes from the teachings…  If we don't have the proper fundamental moral background, we will finally wind up with a totalitarian government which does not believe in rights for anybody except the state.”

DunkingDan

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NuScale makes first Canadian SMR review submission
« Reply #30 on: January 11, 2020, 05:46:33 PM »
NuScale Power has made its first submittals to Canada's nuclear regulator for a pre-licensing vendor design review (VDR) for its small modular reactor (SMR) design. The reactor is also undergoing a design certification review in the USA where the company plans to bring a plant into production and operation by 2026.

The NuScale SMR design features a factory-fabricated 60 MWe power module based on a scalable version of pressurised water reactor technology. The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) in December completed the fourth phase of its six-phase design certification review, which is scheduled for completion by September 2020. Building on information developed as part of the NRC process, the VDR submission will allow customers to maximise efficiencies for technical reviews when later seeking a construction licence, the company said. The first submission combines the first and second phases of the VDR, as the NuScale design is deemed mature enough to enter directly into the second phase of the process. NuScale will make a total of four submittals to the CNSC at about six-monthly intervals.
"Interest in building NuScale plants in Canada continues to grow," NuScale Chairman and CEO John Hopkins said. "This pre-licensing process allows our design to be reviewed by another highly respected regulator, the Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission, and we look forward to their thorough evaluation of our innovative safety features."
The pre-licensing VDR is offered by the Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission (CNSC) as an optional service to assess a nuclear power plant design based on a vendor's reactor technology. It is not a required part of the licensing process for a new nuclear power plant, but aims to verify the acceptability of a design with respect to Canadian nuclear regulatory requirements and expectations. The three phases of the VDR process involve a pre-licensing assessment of compliance with regulatory requirements; an assessment of any potential fundamental barriers to licensing; and a follow-up phase allowing the vendor to respond to findings from the second phase.
Canadian nuclear utility Bruce Power is supporting NuScale's evaluation, planning and licensing activities under a November 2019 agreement to develop a business case to introduce NuScale SMR technology to the Canadian market. Ontario Power Generation is also advising the company on the potential deployment of its technology in Canada, as well as on the SMR licensing and the VDR process.
Researched and written by World Nuclear News

President Harry S. Truman said: “The fundamental basis of this nation’s laws was given to Moses on the Mount.  The fundamental basis of our Bill of Rights comes from the teachings…  If we don't have the proper fundamental moral background, we will finally wind up with a totalitarian government which does not believe in rights for anybody except the state.”

DunkingDan

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Exelon Installs New Accident Tolerant Fuel at Illinois Nuclear Plant
« Reply #31 on: January 16, 2020, 01:26:38 PM »
Global Nuclear Fuel (GNF), a GE-led joint venture with Hitachi Ltd. that supplies boiling water reactor fuel and fuel-related services around the world, said lead test assemblies utilizing its ARMOR-coated zirconium cladding and IronClad Accident Tolerant Fuel solutions have been installed at Exelon’s Clinton nuclear plant in Illinois.
“We continue to work with our customers and partners to develop fuel solutions to lead the industry into the future,” Jay Wileman, president and CEO with GE Hitachi Nuclear Energy, said in a press release announcing the feat. “With support from the industry and the [U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)], we are advancing this fuel technology at an aggressive pace.”
DOE Supports Accident Tolerant Fuel Programs
The DOE’s Office of Nuclear Energy awarded a total of $111.2 million to three companies—GE, Westinghouse, and Framatome—in late 2018 to develop accident tolerant fuels. The period of performance for these awards goes through January 31, 2021, with the DOE planning additional funding of $55.6 million in fiscal year 2020 and $30 million in 2021, contingent upon Congressional approval.
Accident tolerant fuels (ATF) are intended to directly and substantially enhance nuclear fuel reliability and safety, as well as the economics of nuclear reactor operations. One of the most important attributes of ATF is improved heat tolerance. ATF also allows increased agility to power reactors up and down while staying within safety margins.
“We are very pleased with the success of the accident tolerant fuel program to date and its contribution to nuclear reactor safety and economics,” Under Secretary of Energy Mark W. Menezes said in a press release when the DOE awards were announced.
The primary objective of GE’s award was to continue the development of iron-chromium-aluminum (FeCrAl) alloys cladding trademarked IronClad and to continue to develop its coating program for zirconium alloys trademarked ARMOR. The company was also expected to study uranium dioxide-based ceramic metal fuels. One condition for receiving the award was to install an initial lead test assembly in a U.S. commercial power plant during the first 14-month budget period, which the Clinton project presumably fulfills.
The lead test assemblies contain three varieties of GNF’s IronClad solution. In 2018, unfueled IronClad lead test rods and fueled ARMOR-coated zirconium cladding lead test rods were installed at Georgia Power’s Plant Hatch. However, the Clinton assemblies are the first fueled ferritic steel-based cladding assemblies to be installed in a commercial reactor. The assemblies were manufactured at GNF’s facility in Wilmington, North Carolina.
Accident Tolerant Fuels Improve Nuclear Safety
GNF said IronClad solutions are designed to provide substantial oxidation resistance and superior material behavior over a range of conditions compared to prior solutions. The low oxidation rates of the material at higher temperatures further improves safety limit margins. GE Research supported the development of one of the IronClad solution varieties that were installed at Clinton by providing engineering support and fabricating components that went into making the fuel rods.



More at https://www.powermag.com/exelon-installs-new-accident-tolerant-fuel-at-illinois-nuclear-plant/?pagenum=2
President Harry S. Truman said: “The fundamental basis of this nation’s laws was given to Moses on the Mount.  The fundamental basis of our Bill of Rights comes from the teachings…  If we don't have the proper fundamental moral background, we will finally wind up with a totalitarian government which does not believe in rights for anybody except the state.”

HK_Vol

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Re: Electricity Update Pt 9
« Reply #32 on: January 17, 2020, 07:31:52 PM »

https://www.eia.gov/todayinenergy/detail.php?id=42495


New electric generating capacity in 2020 will come primarily from wind and solar

SNIP:
According to the U.S. Energy Information Administration’s (EIA) latest inventory of electric generators, EIA expects 42 gigawatts (GW) of new capacity additions to start commercial operation in 2020. Solar and wind represent almost 32 GW, or 76%, of these additions. Wind accounts for the largest share of these additions at 44%, followed by solar and natural gas at 32% and 22%, respectively. The remaining 2% comes from hydroelectric generators and battery storage.

planned U.S. electric generating capacity additions



HK_Vol

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Re: Electricity Update Pt 9
« Reply #33 on: January 17, 2020, 07:34:44 PM »
No more complaining next year for wind.
All subsidies for wind power go away as of January 1st 2021.


https://www.eia.gov/todayinenergy/detail.php?id=42495

SNIP:
Wind. Operators have scheduled 18.5 GW of wind capacity to come online in 2020, surpassing the record level of 13.2 GW set in 2012. More than 60%, or 11.2 GW, of wind capacity is scheduled to come online at the end of the year, in November and December of 2020, which is typical for solar and wind applications. Expiration of the U.S. production tax credit (PTC) at the end of 2020 is driving the large wind capacity addition. The phase-out of the PTC extension is also reflected in the amount of wind capacity additions that came online in 2019, which EIA expects will total 11.8 GW. Five states account for more than half of the 2020 planned wind capacity additions. Texas accounts for 32%; followed by Oklahoma at 6%; then Wyoming, Colorado, and Missouri at 5% each.

And as for solar - the Southeast is getting into the game in a much bigger way....


SNIP:

EIA expects 13.5 GW of solar capacity to come online in 2020, surpassing the previous annual record addition of 8 GW in 2016. More than half of the utility-scale electric power sector solar photovoltaic (PV) capacity additions will be in four states: Texas (22%), California (15%), Florida (11%), and South Carolina (10%).



HK_Vol

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Re: Electricity Update Pt 9
« Reply #34 on: January 17, 2020, 07:36:17 PM »
As for retirements....


https://www.eia.gov/todayinenergy/detail.php?id=42495

SNIP:

Of the 5.8 GW of coal-fired capacity that EIA expects to retire in 2020, half of the capacity is located in Kentucky and Ohio. The retirement of Unit 3 at the Paradise plant in Kentucky (0.97 GW) will be the largest coal-fired unit to retire in the United States this year. The next-largest retirements will be at Elmer Smith in Kentucky and at Conesville (Unit 4) and W H Sammis (Units 1–4) in Ohio.

Two nuclear plants totaling 1.6 GW are currently scheduled to retire in 2020. Indian Point Unit 2, located in New York, is scheduled to retire in April. Iowa’s only nuclear power plant, Duane Arnold Energy Center, is scheduled to retire in December.



HK_Vol

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Re: Electricity Update Pt 9
« Reply #35 on: January 17, 2020, 07:36:48 PM »

U.S. electric capacity additions and retirements



DunkingDan

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It Costs $532,000 to Decommission A Single Wind Turbine
« Reply #36 on: January 23, 2020, 06:05:39 PM »
t looks like Minnesota will have a very expensive mess to clean up when the wind turbines currently operating in the state reach the end of their 20 year useful lifetimes.
According to utility documents filed by Xcel Energy for it’s Nobles Wind facility, it will cost approximately $445,000 (in 2009 dollars) per turbine to decommission the wind facility. This means it would cost $532,000 per turbine (in 2019 dollars) for each of the 134 turbines in operation at this facility, bringing the total cost of decommissioning the Nobles project to $71 million. However, Xcel also stated these estimates were conservative, meaning this likely represents the high-end cost of decommissioning.
Other wind turbines have six-figure decommissioning costs, as well. According to utility documents for the Palmer’s Creek Wind facility in Chippewa County, Minnesota, it would cost $7,385,822 to decommission the 18 wind turbines operating at that site, a cost of $410,000 per turbine.
One would think such a price tag would at least result in a thorough decommissioning job, but one would be wrong.
According to the Nobles Wind document, “Restoration activities will include and not be limited to removal of all physical material and equipment related to the project to a depth of 48 inches.”
This means Xcel will only remediate the site to a depth of four feet, leaving most of the massive concrete foundations, which go as deep as 15 feet, used to anchor the wind turbines , in the ground indefinitely.
Furthermore, according to the website Renewable Technology, Nobles Wind facility has an extensive underground collector cable system, laid at a depth of four feet, connecting the turbines to a central substation. Xcel’s documents were not specific enough to determine if they would be removing these cables, but the Palmer’s Wind Farm project explicitly states that cables deeper than 4 feet would not be removed:
Wind turbines and solar panels are often given a free pass when it comes to their impact on the environment even though they can cause substantial environmental degradation. In contrast, liberal politicians and special interest groups have continued to delay the replacement of an aging oil pipeline with a newer, and safer replacement.
This double standard is a disservice to Minnesotans who must pay more for their energy, and also the environment.

President Harry S. Truman said: “The fundamental basis of this nation’s laws was given to Moses on the Mount.  The fundamental basis of our Bill of Rights comes from the teachings…  If we don't have the proper fundamental moral background, we will finally wind up with a totalitarian government which does not believe in rights for anybody except the state.”

HK_Vol

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Re: Electricity Update Pt 9
« Reply #37 on: January 24, 2020, 12:00:59 AM »
How much does it cost to decommission a nuclear plant?

DunkingDan

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Re: Electricity Update Pt 9
« Reply #38 on: January 26, 2020, 11:53:16 AM »
How much does it cost to decommission a nuclear plant?
To decommission the equivalent of a older model nukes and using a high average mw average/wind turbine in order to get the same MW output it would cost 530 mil to decommission wind turbine's vs 500 mil for a nuke plant. (That is for the numbers I found today) 
That is before you consider the parts that are recyclable,  the 260 square miles of land that has to be reclaimed vs 1 sq mile, etc. 
President Harry S. Truman said: “The fundamental basis of this nation’s laws was given to Moses on the Mount.  The fundamental basis of our Bill of Rights comes from the teachings…  If we don't have the proper fundamental moral background, we will finally wind up with a totalitarian government which does not believe in rights for anybody except the state.”

HK_Vol

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Re: Electricity Update Pt 9
« Reply #39 on: January 26, 2020, 02:24:17 PM »
The cost to decommission Vermont Yankee was $1.24 Billion.
It had a nameplate capacity of 620 megawatts.


DunkingDan

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Re: Electricity Update Pt 9
« Reply #40 on: January 26, 2020, 02:43:39 PM »
The cost to decommission Vermont Yankee was $1.24 Billion.
It had a nameplate capacity of 620 megawatts.
Different plants are different 
My figure came from a paper that gave the current total for the active plants as well as the number of plants. I erred in dividing by the number and not counting them as multiple unit plants so the average cost is less than I posted.
Vermont Yankee should still be in operation but politics and a encroaching populace had a lot to do there.
I also in my comparison did not take into account recent upgrades to many nuke plants that allow them to have significantly greater generating capacity as well as some units having longer run time.
I doubt any real numbers are available as many cost will be hidden for all the different means of generating  electricity 
President Harry S. Truman said: “The fundamental basis of this nation’s laws was given to Moses on the Mount.  The fundamental basis of our Bill of Rights comes from the teachings…  If we don't have the proper fundamental moral background, we will finally wind up with a totalitarian government which does not believe in rights for anybody except the state.”

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Barakah unit ready for operation, WANO finds
« Reply #41 on: January 31, 2020, 02:52:12 PM »
A team from the World Association of Nuclear Operators (WANO) has concluded that unit 1 of the Barakah nuclear power plant in Abu Dhabi is ready to start up. The Pre-Start Up Review (PSUR) - a globally recognised nuclear industry assessment conducted in line with international industry standards set by WANO - took place in November.

The operational readiness assessment was carried out by international experts from WANO's Atlanta Centre who reviewed and examined numerous functional and cross-functional areas that are essential for the safe start-up and operation of the South Korean-designed APR1400 unit. These ranged from operator performance and operations and maintenance, through to work management and emergency preparedness. WANO has now communicated the final results of the PSUR, confirming that Barakah 1 is ready to start up, the Emirates Nuclear Energy Corporation (ENEC) said.
ENEC CEO Mohamed Al Hammadi said the completion of the WANO assessment was a major milestone for the United Arab Emirates' peaceful nuclear energy programme. "It provides international recognition that our plant, people and processes meet international start up standards and that the Barakah plant fully aligns to the commitments made in 2008 by the Nation of complete operational transparency, and the pursuit of the highest standards of safety, quality and security," he said.
International collaboration with nuclear organisations is a central commitment of the UAE's 2008 Policy on the Evaluation and Potential Development of Peaceful Nuclear Energy, as an essential component of its commitment to complete operational transparency, as well as the continuous pursuit of the highest standards of safety and security, ENEC said. Both ENEC and Nawah Energy Company - which is to operate the plant - are members of WANO.
Four APR1400 reactors are being built at Barakah, near Ruwais in the Al Dhafra Region of Abu Dhabi, by a consortium led by the Korean Electric Power Company. Unit 1 was completed in March 2018, and Nawah is concluding its final preparations for operational readiness ready for loading the first fuel assemblies into the unit. That is expected to take place during the first quarter of this year, once all requirements have been met and Nawah is in receipt of an operating licence from the UAE's Federal Authority for Nuclear Regulation.
Researched and written by World Nuclear News

President Harry S. Truman said: “The fundamental basis of this nation’s laws was given to Moses on the Mount.  The fundamental basis of our Bill of Rights comes from the teachings…  If we don't have the proper fundamental moral background, we will finally wind up with a totalitarian government which does not believe in rights for anybody except the state.”

 

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