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Topic: Electricity Update Pt 8

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DunkingDan

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3 Advanced Reactor Systems to Watch by 2030
« Reply #42 on: September 14, 2019, 05:00:19 PM »
Move over millennials, there’s a new generation looking to debut by 2030.
Generation IV nuclear reactors are being developed through an international cooperation of 14 countries—including the United States.
The U.S. Department of Energy and its national labs are supporting research and development on a wide range of new advanced reactor technologies that could be a game-changer for the nuclear industry. These innovative systems are expected to be cleaner, safer and more efficient than previous generations.

Intrigued?
Here are three designs we are currently working on with industry partners to help meet our future energy needs in a cost-competitive way.
Sodium-Cooled Fast Reactor
A concept design of a sodium-cooled fast reactor title=Sodium-Cooled Fast Reactor

SFRs are designed for management of high-level waste and, in particular, management of plutonium and other actinides.
Idaho National Laboratory
The sodium-cooled fast reactor (SFR) uses liquid metal (sodium) as a coolant instead of water that is typically used in U.S. commercial power plants. This allows for the coolant to operate at higher temperatures and lower pressures than current reactors—improving the efficiency and safety of the system.
The SFR also uses a fast neutron spectrum, meaning that neutrons can cause fission without having to be slowed down first as they are in current reactors. This could allow SFRs to use both fissile material and spent fuel from current reactors to produce electricity.

Quote
Resource: Sodium-Cooled Fast Reactor Fact Sheet
Very High Temperature Reactor
A concept design for a very high temperature reactor title=Very High Temperature Reactor

VHTRs offer a broad range of process heat applications and an option for high efficiency electricity production.
Idaho National Laboratory
The very high temperature reactor is cooled by flowing gas and is designed to operate at high temperatures that can produce electricity extremely efficiently. The high temperature gas could also be used in energy-intensive processes that currently rely on fossil fuels, such as hydrogen production, desalination, district heating, petroleum refining, and ammonia production. Very high temperature reactors offer impressive safety features and can be easy to construct and affordable to maintain.

Quote
Resource: Very High Temperature Reactor Fact Sheet
Molten Salt Reactor
A design concept of a molten salt reactor title=Molten Salt Reactor

MSRs have a closed fuel cycle that can be tailored for the efficient burn up of plutonium and minor actinides.
Idaho National Laboratory
Molten salt reactors (MSR) use molten fluoride or chloride salts as a coolant. The coolant can flow over solid fuel like other reactors or fissile materials can be dissolved directly into the primary coolant so that the fission directly heats the salt.

MSRs are designed to use less fuel and produce shorter-lived radioactive waste than other reactor types. They have the potential to significantly change the safety posture and economics of nuclear energy production by processing fuel online, removing waste products and adding fresh fuel without lengthy refueling outages. 

Their operation can be tailored for the efficient burn up of plutonium and minor actinides, which could allow MSRs to consume waste from other reactors.

The system can also be used for electricity or hydrogen production.

Quote
Resource: Molten Salt Reactor Fact Sheet

President Harry S. Truman said: “The fundamental basis of this nation’s laws was given to Moses on the Mount.  The fundamental basis of our Bill of Rights comes from the teachings…  If we don't have the proper fundamental moral background, we will finally wind up with a totalitarian government which does not believe in rights for anybody except the state.”

DunkingDan

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Introducing the nuclear reactor that creates its own fuel
« Reply #43 on: September 16, 2019, 07:14:36 PM »
A new nuclear power start-up, chaired by none other than Bill Gates, looks to be on the verge of creating a nuclear reactor that is able to produce its own fuel. TerraPower’s Travelling Wave Reactor (TWR) is a new form of breed-and-burn reactor that could have a transformative impact upon the energy generation industry.

TerraPower aims to solve many of the problems that currently plague conventional nuclear reactor designs. With the TWR TerraPower believes it has created a nuclear reactor that is safer and more efficient, that generates very little waste, and is less likely to suffer a disastrous breakdown- even if left unattended.
A visualisation of the Travelling Wave Reactor. title=A visualisation of the Travelling Wave Reactor.
 (A visualisation of the Travelling Wave Reactor. Image via TerraPower).
 
 The TWR is based upon the breed-and-burn reactor type which was conceived over 60 years ago by Russian physicist, Saveli Feinberg. Feinberg’s design featured a slowly advancing wave of nuclear fission through a fuel source, creating and consuming its fuel as the reaction travels through the core. However, with Uranium being plentiful during the immediate-post war period, Feinberg’s design didn’t catch on, until now.
 
 TerraPower has picked up from where Feinberg left breed-and-burn reactors. 
 
 To help them develop their current TWR, TerraPower created an Advanced Reactor Modelling Interface (ARMI), which is effectively a digital toolbox which allows them to simulate various custom or novel reactor types. After extensive testing using this tool and others, TerraPower believe they have arrived at a practical and feasible version of Feinberg’s breed-and-burn reactor; what they call the Travelling Wave Reactor (TWR).
 
 TerraPower’s version of the breed-and-burn reactor type will breed the fissile plutonium fuel it needs right before it burns it. To do this, it will utilise an overhead crane system that will maintain a reaction within a ringed portion of the core by moving pins into and out of the reaction zone. Electricity will be generated by using a looping stream of liquid sodium to absorb the heat from the reaction. The stream of heated sodium will then leave the reactor core and be used to boil water which will drive a steam turbine.
A visualisation of a future Travelling Wave Reactor plant. title=A visualisation of a future Travelling Wave Reactor plant.
 (A visualisation of a future Travelling Wave Reactor plant. Image via TerraPower).
 

 It is claimed that the TWR will generate less waste than traditional reactor types. TerraPower claims that because the TWR burns its fuel more efficiently, a 1,200MW reactor will only generate 5 metric megatons of waste per gigawatt-year, whereas a typical reactor of today’s standard designs will produce 21 metric megatons per gigawatt-year.
 
 The reactor’s creators believe that such a reactor could operate for as much as 50 years without interference. To put such claims to the test, TerraPower plans to break ground on its first test TWR reactor next year in China, with reactor becoming operational by the mid-2020s.
 
 Industry analysts predict that should the pilot prove to be successful, it will take at least twenty years before the technology can be scaled and widely deployed.


President Harry S. Truman said: “The fundamental basis of this nation’s laws was given to Moses on the Mount.  The fundamental basis of our Bill of Rights comes from the teachings…  If we don't have the proper fundamental moral background, we will finally wind up with a totalitarian government which does not believe in rights for anybody except the state.”

DunkingDan

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French-developed SMR design unveiled
« Reply #44 on: September 23, 2019, 12:29:19 PM »
A new small modular reactor (SMR) design has been announced by the French Alternative Energies and Atomic Energy Commission (CEA), EDF, Naval Group and TechnicAtome. The Nuward - with a capacity of 300-400 MWe - has been jointly developed using France's experience in pressurised water reactors (PWRs).

In a joint statement, the organisations said the Nuward design has been developed to meet "growing world demand for decarbonised, safe and competitive electricity generation". The design will "benefit from best in class French technologies from more than 50 years of experience in PWR design, development, construction and more than 2000 reactor years of PWR operating experience".
The CEA has contributed to the development of the Nuward design with its skills in research and qualification, while utility EDF has helped through its experience in systems integration and operation. Naval defence company Naval Group has contributed its structures and modular experience to the project, with TechnicAtome providing its compact reactor design experience.
According to the partners, the Nuward design will be a "modular solution introducing some significant innovations with major benefits to the operator and product's competitiveness: compacity and simplicity of an integrated design, flexibility for construction and operation, innovative safety approach in line with the world's best standards".
The Nuward partners say they are open to international cooperation, "notably to foster the harmonisation of regulation, the standardisation of design and design optimisation".
CEA and EDF have already started discussions with Westinghouse of the USA to explore potential cooperation on SMR development.
EDF Chairman and CEO Jean-Bernard Lévy said: "EDF is committed to contributing its wealth of experience to make Nuward a success. Alongside our partners, we believe the project unveiled today is a promising beginning of a safe and competitive nuclear design meant to broaden the range of solutions for low-carbon baseload energy offered by the French nuclear industry. We are proud to team with the best experts and breed this new nuclear technology to address a new, high-potential market."
The partners aim to complete the basic design of the Nuward between 2022 and 2025. The design should be in the "advanced concept phase" between 2025 and 2030, during which time the design is expected to be certified and the supply chain developed. Construction of a demonstration Nuward SMR is scheduled for 2030. The construction of that unit is expected to take three years.
Late last month, media reports said that CEA had dropped development of a 600 MWe sodium-cooled nuclear reactor. CEA reportedly said it would finalise research in its Astrid (Advanced Sodium Technological Reactor for Industrial Demonstration) project this year and is no longer planning to build a prototype in the short or medium term.
Researched and written by World Nuclear News

President Harry S. Truman said: “The fundamental basis of this nation’s laws was given to Moses on the Mount.  The fundamental basis of our Bill of Rights comes from the teachings…  If we don't have the proper fundamental moral background, we will finally wind up with a totalitarian government which does not believe in rights for anybody except the state.”

DunkingDan

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Re: Electricity Update Pt 8
« Reply #45 on: September 23, 2019, 02:20:49 PM »
''the basic footprint of facilities for a moment in order to get 1000MW from wind you need ~260 Square miles, to get 1000MW from Nuclear (coal is about the same) you need ~1 Square Mile, solar needs ~150 Square miles to get 1000MW 

I failed to include the fact most nukes are multiple units so your getting 2000-4000 MW per sq mile 


President Harry S. Truman said: “The fundamental basis of this nation’s laws was given to Moses on the Mount.  The fundamental basis of our Bill of Rights comes from the teachings…  If we don't have the proper fundamental moral background, we will finally wind up with a totalitarian government which does not believe in rights for anybody except the state.”

HK_Vol

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Re: Electricity Update Pt 8
« Reply #46 on: September 23, 2019, 06:31:59 PM »
Not sure how you calculate your numbers.
You can place 5 turbines on one square mile (640 acres).
Each turbine requires about 1 acre of land - the remainder can be farmed as it always has been historically - and in many cases the turbine can be sited on poorer quality land.
So take that Square Mile Number and divide by about 100.


But a wind turbine failure isn't nearly as dangerous as a nuclear reactor failure.
Which is the reason the public is wary.



DunkingDan

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Re: Electricity Update Pt 8
« Reply #47 on: September 23, 2019, 07:15:50 PM »
Not sure how you calculate your numbers.
You can place 5 turbines on one square mile (640 acres).
Each turbine requires about 1 acre of land - the remainder can be farmed as it always has been historically - and in many cases the turbine can be sited on poorer quality land.
So take that Square Mile Number and divide by about 100.


But a wind turbine failure isn't nearly as dangerous as a nuclear reactor failure.
Which is the reason the public is wary.
Actually there is not that much size difference in one and two unit planet as there is many shared systems  and in some cases 3 and 4 unit planets are not taking up that much more space as a lot of the peripheral land is for storage and security.

 And to be totally honest I was thinking a two unit plant when I did my initial calculation but I looked at it as one plant. I goofed.

Fossil plants are about the same. However most fossil units are smaller but have more units per site 

Likewise I under valued the average Nuke output as most are between 1100 and 1200 KW and some have been upgraded to have a even higher output as of late.

Nuke rx failure, unless some greedy management tries to keep it on line, is nothing. American Rx's will safely shut themself's safely down if you get your damn hands in your damn pockets and if there is a major problem once again if you keep your hands off of it will be contained to a very small area.

As a note I am talking about the environmental footprint.  

Note you can not farm under or around Solar Panels. Most wind farms are not where people farm as the wind blows away to much so it erodes the top soil. You must have a minimum MPH average of wind to make it economically feasible to put one up. So more and more are going on Mtn. tops and we have not even considered the erosion problems that will follow as well as destroyed wildlife habitat 
President Harry S. Truman said: “The fundamental basis of this nation’s laws was given to Moses on the Mount.  The fundamental basis of our Bill of Rights comes from the teachings…  If we don't have the proper fundamental moral background, we will finally wind up with a totalitarian government which does not believe in rights for anybody except the state.”

HK_Vol

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Re: Electricity Update Pt 8
« Reply #48 on: September 23, 2019, 07:29:18 PM »
Nuke rx failure, unless some greedy management tries to keep it on line, is nothing.

I'm sure you are right - but the perception is that they are risky.
The latest Chernobyl docu-drama doesn't help the nuclear case.

As for solar, a lot of solar is on rooftops - which means it makes zero land impact vs. the building that is already there.
As for solar farms, most are where the sun shines brightly most every single day - which means the number one destination for solar farms is....you guessed it....the desert.



HK_Vol

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Re: Electricity Update Pt 8
« Reply #49 on: September 23, 2019, 07:31:47 PM »

https://www.eia.gov/todayinenergy/detail.php?id=41333

SNIP:

Wind power has been the fastest-growing source of electricity in recent years in the Electric Reliability Council of Texas (ERCOT) region that serves most of Texas. Since the beginning of 2018, the industry has added 3 GW of wind generating capacity and plans to add another 7 GW before the end of 2020. These additions would result in an increase of nearly 50% from the 2017 wind capacity level in ERCOT. EIA expects wind to supply 20% of ERCOT total generation in 2019 and 24% in 2020. If realized, wind would match coal’s share of ERCOT's electricity generation this year and exceed it in 2020.

ERCOT annual electric power sector generation






HK_Vol

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Re: Electricity Update Pt 8
« Reply #50 on: September 23, 2019, 07:34:48 PM »
Four of the six largest states in the production of utility-scale solar are:
  • California
  • Arizona
  • Nevada
  • Utah

What do they all have in common?
Lots of sunshine and lots of desert.


DunkingDan

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Re: Electricity Update Pt 8
« Reply #51 on: September 23, 2019, 08:00:28 PM »
Nuke rx failure, unless some greedy management tries to keep it on line, is nothing.

I'm sure you are right - but the perception is that they are risky.
The latest Chernobyl docu-drama doesn't help the nuclear case.

As for solar, a lot of solar is on rooftops - which means it makes zero land impact vs. the building that is already there.
As for solar farms, most are where the sun shines brightly most every single day - which means the number one destination for solar farms is....you guessed it....the desert.
Thought of you the other day. Got the pic of this one home but I did not ck the shot like I should. I was tired and just wanted to get home. But anyway here it is, I'll get a better shot someday as well as the one I have mentioned in the past.


There are a lot of solar farms out there and more coming. Yes there are some on rooftops but that has zero to do with the footprint I discussed and the numbers pale in compassion. Likewise we are not considering the waste in making and disposing of them when they are useless or a hail storm occurs, etc.  
President Harry S. Truman said: “The fundamental basis of this nation’s laws was given to Moses on the Mount.  The fundamental basis of our Bill of Rights comes from the teachings…  If we don't have the proper fundamental moral background, we will finally wind up with a totalitarian government which does not believe in rights for anybody except the state.”

HK_Vol

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Re: Electricity Update Pt 8
« Reply #52 on: September 23, 2019, 08:43:07 PM »
So can solar panels be recycled? The short answer is yes. Silicon solar modules are primarily composed of glass, plastic, and aluminum: three materials that are recycled in mass quantities.

Despite the recyclability of the modules, the process in which materials are separated can be tedious and requires advanced machinery. Here are the main steps involved in successfully recycling a silicon module:

  • Removing the aluminum frame (100% reusable)
  • Separating the glass along a conveyor belt (95% reusable)
  • Thermal processing at 500 degrees Celsius
This allows for the evaporation of small plastic components and allows the cells to be easier separated.
  • Etching away silicon wafers and smelting them into reusable slabs (85% reusable)


Source: GreenMatch.com




HK_Vol

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Re: Electricity Update Pt 8
« Reply #53 on: September 24, 2019, 09:04:56 AM »

https://www.scottadamssays.com/2019/09/23/a-message-for-children-about-climate-change/

Dear Children,

I’m sorry adults have frightened you about climate change and how it might affect your future. You might be less afraid if you knew some facts that adults intentionally do not explain to you. I’ll tell you here.


The news was once a source of real information, or so we thought. But in the modern world, the news people discovered they can make more money by presenting scary news regardless of whether it is true or not. Today, much of the news on the right and the left is opinion that is meant to scare you, not inform you, because scary things get more attention, and that makes the news business more profitable. The same is true for people who write books; authors often make books scary so you will buy them. Most adults know all the scariness is not real. Most kids do not. You just learned it.

Nuclear energy used to be dangerous, back in the olden days. Today’s nuclear power plants (the ones built in the past 20 years all over the world) have killed zero people, and are considered the safest form of energy in the world. More people have died installing solar panels and falling off roofs than have died from nuclear power problems anywhere in the world for the past few decades. And nuclear energy is the obvious way to address climate change, say most of the smartest adults in the world, because it can provide abundant, cheap, clean energy with zero carbon emissions.


Adults sometimes like to use children to carry their messages because it makes it hard for the other side to criticize them without seeming like monsters. If adults have encouraged you to panic about climate change without telling you what I am telling you here, they do not have your best interests at heart. They are using you.

When you ask adults about nuclear energy, expect them to have old understanding about it, meaning they don’t know the newer nuclear energy technologies are the safest energy on the planet.

What I told you today is not always understood even by adults. You are now smarter than most adults on the topic of climate.

HK_Vol

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Re: Electricity Update Pt 8
« Reply #54 on: September 24, 2019, 09:41:33 PM »
For the first seven months of 2019, the Southwest (New Mexico, Arizona, Utah, Nevada, & California) generated 15% of their electricity output from solar.  Who would have guessed that 5 or 10 years ago?  (I'd say they're pushing closer to 20% if you eliminate the northern half of California).


HK_Vol

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Re: Electricity Update Pt 8
« Reply #55 on: September 24, 2019, 09:47:25 PM »
For the first seven months of 2019, the Midwest (North Dakota, South Dakota, Iowa, Kansas, Nebraska, Colorado, Oklahoma, Texas) generated 24% of their electricity from wind.

Texas is by far the largest generator of electricity of any state in the Union.  They generated 19.5% of their electricity from wind.  The rest of the Midwest excluding Texas generated 31.5% of their electricity from wind so far in 2019.  (with new turbines being built, I'd say it will be at least 1/3rd of electricity in 2020.


Nationally, wind and solar combined now produce over 10% of electricity in the United States.
That percentage was 1.3% in 2008.

 

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