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Topic: Electricity Update Pt 7

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DunkingDan

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The Dark Side of the Smart Grid
« Reply #70 on: May 05, 2019, 02:00:31 PM »
The smart grid offers great promise to transform the electric system, enabling two-way communication between providers and consumers over the network, and allowing new services that can save electricity and reduce costs. It gives consumers more control over how and when they use power—but it has a dark side.
The smart grid, now some 15 years in development and still far from mature, offers potential benefits to utilities, electric generators, and customers. But the smart grid also has a dark side, born of the interconnected nature that is also the source of its promise.
Two-way communication among generators, transmitters, and customers is the smart grid’s key. That kind of mutual intelligence offers solid benefits, including energy management, increased reliability and resilience, and integration of intermittent renewable energy generation and storage. It also accommodates distributed power generation and microgrids, enhances the value of electric vehicles, and gives customers greater choices of how and when to use electricity.
Electric energy pioneer and visionary Nikola Tesla in 1926 said, “When wireless is perfectly applied the whole earth will be converted into a huge brain… and the instruments through which we shall be able to do this will be amazingly simple compared with our present telephone. A man will be able to carry one in his vest pocket.”
The Interconnected Smart Grid
The best definition of the smart grid comes from the European Union Commission Task Force for Smart Grids: “A Smart Grid is an electricity network that can cost efficiently integrate the behavior and actions of all users connected to it—generators, consumers and those that do both—in order to ensure economically efficient, sustainable power systems with low losses and high levels of quality and security of supply and safety. A smart grid employs innovative products and services together with intelligent monitoring, control, communication, and self-healing technologies …”
The down side to this vision is how those interconnections—driven by modern computer technologies, data flow, and information management—interact with each other. Do they, by their nature, offer cybersecurity threats, those opportunities for malevolent forces to intrude, disrupt, or destroy?
The threat is not confined to electric systems. It applies to much of interconnected modern society. Hackers have proven adept at infiltrating and altering myriad systems, including industrial, institutional, and governmental computer-driven networks (and major political campaigns). Threats to the electric power structure are particularly high-profile, given the ubiquity and importance of electricity to modern civilization.
Ineffective Government Action
The Trump administration in May 2017, in Executive Order 13800, called for government agencies to put the highest priority on protecting critical infrastructure (Figure 1) from cyberattacks, designating the Department of Homeland Security (DHS) as the lead agency in the action.
1. The federal government recognizes that critical infrastructure of the U.S. power grid, including transmission lines, needs to be protected from cyberattacks. The Trump administration has designated the Department of Homeland Security to take the lead on cybersecurity. Source: U.S. Geological Survey
Yet, a recent survey by The Network, unveiled in early March in San Francisco at the annual RSA Conference, one of the cybersecurity community’s annual gatherings, found skepticism about the executive order. According to The Washington Post, “More than three-fourths of digital security experts” polled said the nation is no safer from cyberattacks today than when the order went into effect two years ago. The Network, said the newspaper, “is a panel of more than 100 security experts from government, academia and the private sector” who vote in an ongoing survey of cybersecurity issues.
Those surveyed for the most part did not accuse the government of falling down on the job, but said threats are arriving faster than the means to combat them. The Post article said, “Anup Ghosh, a managing director at Accenture Security and a former [Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency] official, said that threats against critical infrastructure—especially against energy utilities—are proliferating ‘and the industry is playing catch-up.’ ”
2. Protecting the U.S. electricity grid means keeping the country’s cybersecurity efforts ahead of those who would try to compromise the electricity network. But locking out adversaries is challenging as malicious entities increase their level of sophistication. Courtesy: Creative Commons / QYYZ
“Attack surface” is a prominent phrase in current cybersecurity (Figure 2) discussions. As interconnections proliferate, the opportunities for attacks increase even faster. Susanne Spaulding, a former DHS cybersecurity chief, said that improvements have occurred and the agency and industry have been doing good work. “But our adversaries,” she said, “are moving ahead with malicious capabilities more quickly than we are advancing our defenses.”
3. Martin Libicki, chair of cybersecurity studies at the U.S. Naval Academy, has said most of the nation’s critical power infrastructure is privatized, making it difficult for government to take sufficient cybersecurity measures. Source: U.S. Naval Academy
Martin Libicki (Figure 3), who chairs cybersecurity studies at the U.S. Naval Academy, said, “Cybersecurity largely results from the interaction of defenders’ sophistication [which is rising], attackers’ sophistication [which is also rising], and the size of the attack surface [which keeps expanding]. When it comes to non-government systems [most of the critical infrastructure is in private hands], government is on the outside looking in.”
Attack Surfaces Grow
For the electric smart grid, Tobias Whitney, technical executive for cybersecurity at the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), told POWER that the advance of the smart grid does enlarge the attack surface. More interactive systems come into play, both at the individual customer level, and outside the home, industry, or business, to the level of distributed resources, aggregated distributed resources, microgrids, and other emerging trends in the power industry, all assisted or enabled by a smart grid.
Whitney identified “two levels of concern about cyber vulnerabilities from the smart grid.” The first is the bulk transmission system. The other is at the distribution level. Both can interact with each other.
For distribution, the threats are often “one consumer at a time,” and largely involving privacy and individual safety concerns, geared to the arrival of the Internet of Things. Just one example, Google’s Nest smart thermostat, which provides energy management capabilities, can be hacked (see sidebar), providing a detailed view of an individual’s energy usage. “There are a whole bevy of risks for home Wi-Fi and broadband connections,” Whitney said, and “that’s always going to be a challenge.”
Hacking the Nest Smart Thermostat
At the Black Hat USA 2014 conference, a team of white hat cybersecurity hackers took a look at Google’s highly touted Nest thermostat (Figure 4). It is able to read your energy usage patterns, communicate with the distribution grid supplying electricity, and provide information to the local electric supplier. It can be controlled by a smart phone from anywhere. The general view was that the Nest was a “way cool” application of smart grid technology.

4. The Nest thermostat from Google reads energy usage patterns and can communicate with the power grid. It can be controlled by a smart phone—and researchers also say it’s a prime candidate to be hacked and could disrupt a home’s electricity. Courtesy: Google
The security researchers, including experts from the University of Central Florida, Computerworld reported, were able to hack into the Nest in 15 seconds and have it display a message: “I know that you and Frank were planning to disconnect me, and I am afraid that is something I cannot allow to happen.”
It was a graphic demonstration of the risks the Internet of Things can bring to the interconnected world. It was also homage to the 1968 Stanley Kubrick film “2001: A Space Odyssey,” where the computer HAL 9000 takes over and says to the human commander, in response to a command, “I’m sorry, Dave, I’m afraid I can’t do that.”
Black Hat is a group of computer scientists working on cybersecurity that holds conferences around the world to examine security issues. The group published a presentation about the Nest thermostat titled “Smart Nest Thermostat, A Smart Spy in Your Home.”
Google has since upgraded the security of Nest and its family of products that include smart home security, a smart doorbell, a smart camera, and a smart smoke and CO sensor and alarm. All are connected to the internet and there is no guarantee that the security upgrades can survive attacks by serious hackers.
Kevin Markey, a Denver-area computer scientist and retired Oracle executive, told POWER, “The security has improved with two-factor authentication two years ago. And all of the hacks I’ve read about require physical access to the unit.” But Markey said he remains skeptical, noting that used Nest equipment could be resold, providing a pathway into the previous owner’s home, adding, “How many people do you know who keep up on security updates?”
Poudre Valley REA—a large rural electric cooperative in Fort Collins, Colorado—is offering deals on Nest thermostats if customers agree to allow the co-op to use them for air conditioning load management. “A great innovation and lots cheaper than some of the old devices, which may have been less secure because they don’t have the resources for security that Google/Nest has,” Markey said. Nonetheless, Markey said he declined the offer because his passive solar heated and cooled home doesn’t need air conditioning.
Then there are broader risks and vulnerabilities where distribution systems and the bulk transmission system interact. For years, the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) and others in the electric industry have tried and failed to make a distinction between transmission and distribution, for regulatory and business reasons. In terms of physics, it’s a false dichotomy. Electricity travels over the high-voltage system, to lower-voltage lines, and to useful voltages into the home. The electrons don’t recognize government or industry lines of demarcation.
“Distributed generation technology is becoming more and more mature,” EPRI’s Whitney said. That includes the development of smart inverters that can easily integrate direct current—produced from solar photovoltaic systems and stored on-site in batteries—with the grid into alternating current two-way transactions.
Distributed generation and energy efficiency programs, microgrids, and distributed energy resource (DER) aggregation pose a challenge, said Whitney. “Who is responsible for the microgrid? Given that it is sometimes driven by the customer—a commercial customer in some cases—or a utility customer, or something in between. It’s not so much a technical question,” he said, but a management issue.
With aggregators, Whitney noted, “The interface is changing between distribution and transmission. That’s one of the challenges we need to face. The model is changing.” Managers of these aggregated DER systems—involving electric vehicles, solar generation, and storage—are not the consumer and not the utility. “At the same time,” he said, “aggregators have great ability to impact the system,” with control over hundreds to thousands of megawatts. He said there is a need to “better articulate what these organizations are, and model their impact on the grid.”
Smart Grid Origins
Smart grid concepts have been around for many years, starting with metering. Utilities have long sought to reduce the costs of traditional meter reading, with humans arriving at the meter and recording the usage readings. It’s costly and subject to human errors (and sometimes intentional nefarious acts). Automated meter reading began in the 1980s for large industrial and commercial customers.
In the 1980s, some utilities were already thinking beyond the meter and into the home. Southern California Edison, which then had one of the industry’s largest research programs, was promoting the idea of a “smart home” that used beyond-state-of-the-art communications technologies to control energy use.
In the 1990s, the industry moved to “advanced metering infrastructure,” then to smart meters in the new century. These interactive devices would cut utility costs and generate useful information for the utility. There have been headwinds in installing smart meters, as the benefits seem to flow mostly to the utility, while the utility wants the customer to pay for the new meters.
After a widespread blackout in the U.S. Northeast in 2003, Kurt Yeager, then EPRI’s CEO, began advancing the idea of a smart grid that would be more resilient than the conventional grid. He rolled out EPRI’s approach to the smart grid in 2004 and then retired after 30 years with the group. He then joined the startup Galvin Electricity Initiative, founded by former Motorola CEO Robert Galvin, honcho of modern cell phones, to promote smart grid technologies and policies.
The seeds Yeager and Galvin sowed bore fruit. In the 2007 Energy Independence and Security Act, the last comprehensive U.S. energy policy legislation, Congress authorized $400 million in federal spending through 2012 to help roll out smart grid capabilities. The new law also directed the National Institute of Standards and Technology, and FERC, to develop and implement smart grid standards, a process that is ongoing.
Grid cybersecurity was not high on the agenda of Congress or the executive branch when they took up the smart grid concept in 2007, but it didn’t take long for security concerns to arise. In April 2009, The Wall Street Journal reported somewhat breathlessly, “Cyberspies have penetrated the U.S. electrical grid and left behind software programs that could be used to disrupt the system, according to current and former national-security officials. The spies came from China, Russia and other countries, these officials said, and were believed to be on a mission to navigate the U.S. electrical system and its controls. The intruders haven’t sought to damage the power grid or other key infrastructure, but officials warned they could try during a crisis or war.”
Since then, grid cybersecurity has grown into a top government and industry agenda item, with the recognition that the more interconnected the grid becomes, the greater the attack surface. In its “Quadrennial Energy Review” issued in late 2017, the DOE warned: “Cyber threats to the electricity system are increasing in sophistication, magnitude, and frequency. The current cyber security landscape is characterized by rapidly evolving threats and vulnerabilities, juxtaposed against the slower-moving deployment of defense measures.”
New Approaches to Grid Security
Conventional approaches to protecting the grid, involving hardware firewalls, layers of encryption, and multiple authentication, have dominated the response to the security weaknesses. But there may be newer and better ways to approach the topic.
Pat Gelsinger, CEO of VMware, a Dell Technologies subsidiary and a leading firm in cloud computing services, offered a provocative and unconventional approach to cybersecurity at the March RSA Conference. “The biggest threat to security today,” he said, “is our hyper-focus on threats. Most innovations have centered on finding and dealing with attacks. By contrast, very little has been done in how we shrink the attack surface. That domain needs to be a topic to achieve big gains in security.”
Said Gelsinger: “The most important security product won’t be a security product in the future. It’s got to be built-in, not products outside the system.” He said it is necessary to “build more security systems into our infrastructure, into the storage, into the network operations of our end-users.” He promoted the idea of “simplifying—consistently reducing the attack surface.”
To that end, said Gelsinger, the trick is to “leverage the power of the cloud to secure the cloud,” which involves “reconsidering the basic notion of a firewall.” He advocated, not so subtly touting his company’s wares, a “service-defined firewall, done fully in software, a firewall for the cloud era.” This, he said, is the key to “dramatically reducing the attack surface.” ■


https://www.powermag.com/the-dark-side-of-the-smart-grid/?printmode=1
President Harry S. Truman said: “The fundamental basis of this nation’s laws was given to Moses on the Mount.  The fundamental basis of our Bill of Rights comes from the teachings…  If we don't have the proper fundamental moral background, we will finally wind up with a totalitarian government which does not believe in rights for anybody except the state.”

DunkingDan

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UK generates usable electricity from americium
« Reply #71 on: May 09, 2019, 01:09:30 PM »
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The UK's National Nuclear Laboratory (NNL) and University of Leicester have generated usable electricity from the chemical element americium in what it believes to be a global first. The achievement is seen as a step towards potential use of americium in so-called space batteries, which may mean future space missions can be powered for up to 400 years.

Americium is an element not found in nature, but which is produced by the radioactive decay of plutonium - which itself is produced during the operation of nuclear reactors. A team led by NNL has extracted americium from some of the UK's plutonium stocks, and used the heat generated from this highly radioactive material to generate electric current, which in turn lit up a small light bulb - all within a specially shielded area of NNL's Central Laboratory in Cumbria, England.
Space batteries are power sources for space probes which would use the heat from americium pellets to power sensors and transmitters as the probes head into deep space where other power sources such as solar panels will no longer function, NNL said. In this way, such probes can carry on sending back vital images and data to Earth for many decades - far longer than would otherwise be possible.
The breakthrough means potential use of americium in radioisotope power systems for missions which would use the heat from americium pellets to power spacecraft heading into deep space or to challenging environments on planet surfaces where other power sources, such as solar panels, no longer function. In this way, NNL said, such space missions can carry on sending back vital images and data to Earth for many decades, far longer than would otherwise be possible.
Science Minister Chris Skidmore said: "This remarkable breakthrough sounds like something from a science fiction film but it is another brilliant testament to our world leading scientific and university communities and their commitment to keeping the UK at the very frontier of developments in space technology and research for energy requirements in difficult environments. It is on the foundations of such discoveries that we can create the highly skilled jobs of the future, supported through our modern Industrial Strategy and record level of government investment in R&D."
The technical programme to deliver this world first has been running for several years, supported by funding from the European Space Agency (ESA), and has seen NNL working very closely with the University of Leicester. The work of European Thermodynamics Ltd in helping to develop the thermoelectric generator unit was a vital part of this collaboration, and support from the Nuclear Decommissioning Authority, who permitted the use of plutonium from the UK stockpile under their stewardship, was also essential.
Richard Ambrosi, professor of Space Instrumentation and Space Nuclear Power Systems at the University of Leicester, said: "In order to push forward the boundaries of space exploration, innovations in power generation, robotics, autonomous vehicles and advanced instrumentation are needed. Radioisotope power sources are an important technology for future European space exploration missions as their use would result in more capable spacecraft, and probes that can access distant, cold, dark and inhospitable environments. This is an important step in achieving these goals."
Tim Tinsley, NNL's account director for the work, said: "Seeing this lightbulb lit is the culmination of a huge amount of specialist technical work carried out by the teams from NNL and Leicester, working in collaboration with other organisations such as ESA and UK Space Agency. Leicester University's capability in development of the radioisotope power systems was complimented by NNL's expertise in handling and processing americium in our unique lab facilities. It is great to think that americium can be used in this way, recycling something that is a waste from one industry into a significant asset in another."
Although NNL can't be 100% certain the achievement is a world first, it does believe it is the first time that the heat from americium has been used to generate electricity, Tinsley said.
"You need access to americium, which is not easy. Current technology uses Pu238 instead which is very hard and very expensive to produce," he told World Nuclear News.
NNL has had interest from space agencies, he said, other than ESA, which wants to have the system ready to power a lunar mission later next decade. There is also interest for applications on the Earth where a power source that potentially lasts 100s of years has benefits, he said, adding that it could be valuable commercial and export opportunity for the UK.
NNL spokesman Adrian Bull added: "Some current probes use an isotope of plutonium for this purpose - but that's in increasingly short supply. This route of using Americium takes something that's generally regarded as a problem and turns it into an asset. Our work is funded by the European Space Agency and they are interested to use the americium approach for future European space missions."
The plutonium is not recycled, Tinsley noted. "We 'clean' the americium from it, which would have been a waste. With sufficient applications, all of the UK plutonium could be 'cleaned' of the americium. The returned plutonium is in a better condition, ready for further storage or reuse as nuclear fuel."
Bull added: "The americium in plutonium is potentially a problem for re-using the plutonium as new fuel. In extracting the americium from aged plutonium stocks, we end up with both the separated americium and also 'cleaner' plutonium - for potential re-use in the fuel cycle. So it's a win-win."
Keith Stephenson, the programme lead from ESA for the work, said the "unrivalled energy density" of nuclear power sources enables a whole range of missions that would be otherwise impossible. "This successful collaboration between the nuclear and space sectors has created a brand-new capability for Europe, and opens the door to a future of ambitious and exciting exploration of our solar system," he said.
NNL have produced a short film to mark this technical milestone, which can be viewed here: https://youtu.be/a3wqv27ftr4
Researched and written by World Nuclear News

President Harry S. Truman said: “The fundamental basis of this nation’s laws was given to Moses on the Mount.  The fundamental basis of our Bill of Rights comes from the teachings…  If we don't have the proper fundamental moral background, we will finally wind up with a totalitarian government which does not believe in rights for anybody except the state.”

DunkingDan

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New Frontier for computing at Oak Ridge
« Reply #72 on: May 11, 2019, 05:52:43 PM »
The US Department of Energy (DOE) has announced a USD600 million investment in a new supercomputer, to be named Frontier. It said the machine would enable "extreme scale scientific endeavours" to lead to "breakthroughs in scientific discovery, energy assurance, economic competitiveness and national security."



The machine will be set up at the Oak Ridge Leadership Computing Facility, which is a DOE Office of Science User Facility, and be ready for science "from day one" in 2021, said Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) director Thomas Zacharia. DOE said Frontier would be the world's fastest computer and capable of more than one quintillion calculations per second. It follows DOE computers Jaguar, Titan and Summit, each of which was the world's fastest when new.
Frontier will comprise 100 Cray Shasta cabinets packed with AMD EPYC processors and Radeon Instinct GPU accelerators. With four GPUs for each CPU, the machine is expected to excel in data heavy applications and artificial intelligence.
ORNL's ExaSMR project is expected to benefit. It conducts Monte Carlo simulations of small modular reactors (SMRs), but has been limited to simulating start-up conditions. With Frontier's power, said ExaSMR principal investigator Steve Hamilton, the team will be able to simulate conditions at any stage of an SMR's lifespan.
Amitava Bhattacharjee of Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory said it would enable his team to "attempt a whole device model of a tokamak plasma at high fidelity using equations that cover the entire domain of the plasma. The predictions we can make from these kinds of simulations are really important for Iter to achieve its highest potential."
The architecture will enable more accurate simulations of the minute structures and loads in 3-D printed materials, said John Turner of ORNL. Jacqueline Chen of Sandia National Laboratories said she would use Frontier's high fidelity simulations, combined with machine learning and AI, to model the processes of the compression ignition engine.
DOE said these and other researchers will be able to transfer their work from Summit to Frontier seamlessly when the new machine comes online.
The USD600 million contract covers technology development, a centre of excellence, several early-delivery systems, the main Frontier system, and multi-year systems support. The main system is expected to be delivered in 2021, with acceptance following in 2022.
Researched and written by World Nuclear News

President Harry S. Truman said: “The fundamental basis of this nation’s laws was given to Moses on the Mount.  The fundamental basis of our Bill of Rights comes from the teachings…  If we don't have the proper fundamental moral background, we will finally wind up with a totalitarian government which does not believe in rights for anybody except the state.”

DunkingDan

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Doosan to participate in NuScale SMR development
« Reply #73 on: May 13, 2019, 12:15:50 PM »
US small modular reactor developer NuScale Power has signed a memorandum of understanding (MoU) with Doosan Heavy Industries & Construction (DHIC) - part of South Korea's Doosan Group - for strategic cooperation to support deployment of the NuScale Power Module worldwide.

Utah Associated Municipal Power Systems (UAMPS) is planning the development of a 12-module plant at a site at the Idaho National Laboratory, which is expected to begin operation in 2026.
Under the terms of the MoU, DHIC - a manufacturer of nuclear pressure vessels - is expected to build a portion of the most critical and complex sub-assemblies for the plant under development for UAMPS.
NuScale said the agreement not only covers cooperation with DHIC, but "potential Korean financial investors, which, commensurate to final due diligence, plan to make a cash equity investment in NuScale".
The companies aim to close the strategic supplier agreement in July.
John Hopkins, chairman and CEO of NuScale Power, said: "NuScale welcomes this strategic relationship with DHIC - a leader in the global manufacturing industry. Through this relationship, we are not only broadening our supply chain base, but DHIC's potential investment will also be an endorsement of NuScale's strong position as a global SMR leader and our capability to deliver NuScale plants worldwide. We also welcome the interest from Korean financial investors."
He added, "Based upon the international interest in the NuScale design, it is anticipated that significant international capabilities will be needed to meet worldwide needs. DHIC is a highly capable partner to help NuScale meet these market demands."
Ki Yong Na, CEO of Doosan Nuclear Power Plant Business Group, said, "We are impressed with the simplicity, safety and cost-effectiveness of NuScale's design, and we look forward to collaborating with the company as they bring America’s first SMR to market. Furthermore, we see great potential for international applications of NuScale's carbon-free technology, and look forward to collaborating with NuScale as the company pursues additional opportunities."
NuScale's SMR technology features the self-contained NuScale Power Module, with a gross capacity of 200 MWt or 60 MWe. Based on pressurised water reactor technology, the scalable design can be used in power plants of up to 12 individual modules. The technology is undergoing design certification review by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission.
In March, an agreement was signed between NuScale and Romanian energy company Societata Nationala Nuclearelectrica SA to explore the use of SMRs in Romania. NuScale has also signed MoUs to explore the deployment of its SMR technology in Canada and Jordan.
Researched and written by World Nuclear News

President Harry S. Truman said: “The fundamental basis of this nation’s laws was given to Moses on the Mount.  The fundamental basis of our Bill of Rights comes from the teachings…  If we don't have the proper fundamental moral background, we will finally wind up with a totalitarian government which does not believe in rights for anybody except the state.”

HK_Vol

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Re: Electricity Update Pt 7
« Reply #74 on: May 15, 2019, 05:28:40 AM »
https://www.eia.gov/todayinenergy/detail.php?id=39412

EIA expects changes in the mix of energy sources, especially for coal, which is forecast to provide 25% of U.S. generation this summer, down from 28% last summer. Natural gas will provide the largest share of total U.S. generation this summer at 40%, up from 39% last summer, according to EIA’s forecast.

U.S. and regional net electricity generation from coal



DunkingDan

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Re: Electricity Update Pt 7
« Reply #75 on: May 15, 2019, 04:13:30 PM »
https://www.eia.gov/todayinenergy/detail.php?id=39412

EIA expects changes in the mix of energy sources, especially for coal, which is forecast to provide 25% of U.S. generation this summer, down from 28% last summer. Natural gas will provide the largest share of total U.S. generation this summer at 40%, up from 39% last summer, according to EIA’s forecast.

U.S. and regional net electricity generation from coal
Tossed the paper the other day without thinking. One of the local coal companies is opening a new seam and expect to work it for 30 or more years here in Pa. along with a existing operation that will last more then 20 years. 

If We still have it I will scan it and post it as there was some good info in it 
President Harry S. Truman said: “The fundamental basis of this nation’s laws was given to Moses on the Mount.  The fundamental basis of our Bill of Rights comes from the teachings…  If we don't have the proper fundamental moral background, we will finally wind up with a totalitarian government which does not believe in rights for anybody except the state.”

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Metallic fuel under consideration for NuScale SMR
« Reply #76 on: May 19, 2019, 01:40:20 PM »
NuScale Power and Enfission, LLC are to work together to explore the use of Enfission's next-generation nuclear fuel technology in NuScale's small modular reactors (SMRs) under a newly announced memorandum of understanding (MoU).

Lightbridge fuel uses a helically-twisted shape and unique metallic composition which the company says can significantly reduce fuel operating temperatures, improve the fuel's structural integrity and enhance its response to abnormal events. Enfission - a joint venture of Lightbridge Corporation and Framatome - was set up in January 2018 to commercialise nuclear fuel assemblies based on this technology.
The MoU between NuScale and Enfission will see the two parties work together to develop research and testing programmes to explore the application of Enfission fuel technology, which they say is "well-suited" for the natural circulation design of NuScale's SMR. The advanced fuel rod design is expected to increase core performance, extend core life, reduce refuelling outages and offer reduced levelised cost of electricity, they said.
NuScale's SMR design features the factory-fabricated, self-contained NuScale Power Module, with a gross capacity of 200 MWt or 60 MWe. Based on pressurised water reactor technology, the scalable design can be used in power plants of up to 12 individual modules. A US Nuclear Regulatory Commission design certification review of the technology is scheduled for completion in September 2020. A demonstration NuScale SMR is projected to be operational by 2024 at the US Department of Energy's Idaho National Laboratory (INL) site. This is to be followed by a 12-module NuScale plant, owned by Utah Associated Municipal Power Systems and operated by Energy Northwest.
Framatome in 2015 signed an agreement with NuScale to manufacture fuel assemblies for its SMR based on conventional ceramic uranium dioxide fuel and provide testing and analyses needed for its Nuclear Regulatory Commission design certification application.
"The addition of Enfission's Lightbridge Fuel into the equation further solidifies this relationship and will provide future flexibility on fuel types depending on the reactor demands," the companies said.
Researched and written by World Nuclear News

President Harry S. Truman said: “The fundamental basis of this nation’s laws was given to Moses on the Mount.  The fundamental basis of our Bill of Rights comes from the teachings…  If we don't have the proper fundamental moral background, we will finally wind up with a totalitarian government which does not believe in rights for anybody except the state.”

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Judge: TVA Deal for Bellefonte Nuclear Plant Stays in Place
« Reply #77 on: May 21, 2019, 05:50:51 PM »
A federal judge this week ruled the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) must continue to honor an agreement to sell the unfinished Bellefonte Nuclear Power Plant to a real estate developer who has said he would complete construction of the long-idled project.

U.S. District Court Judge Liles C. Burke, in a 17-page opinion issued after a hearing this week in Huntsville, Alabama, declined to dismiss a lawsuit brought by developer Franklin Haney, who sued TVA in November 2018 for breach of contract after TVA said it could not complete the sale of the Bellefonte site and its assets to Haney’s Nuclear Development LLC.

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President Harry S. Truman said: “The fundamental basis of this nation’s laws was given to Moses on the Mount.  The fundamental basis of our Bill of Rights comes from the teachings…  If we don't have the proper fundamental moral background, we will finally wind up with a totalitarian government which does not believe in rights for anybody except the state.”

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Re: Electricity Update Pt 7
« Reply #78 on: May 21, 2019, 06:13:29 PM »
The NRC is to blame rather than TVA?

DunkingDan

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Re: Electricity Update Pt 7
« Reply #79 on: May 21, 2019, 06:39:47 PM »
The NRC is to blame rather than TVA?
The NRC lic. board has had its head so far up its butt for so many years nothing is surprising. Likewise TVA loves to pass the buck.

Would love to see both units on line. 

Have to wonder how much TVA has scavenged  from the site. 

President Harry S. Truman said: “The fundamental basis of this nation’s laws was given to Moses on the Mount.  The fundamental basis of our Bill of Rights comes from the teachings…  If we don't have the proper fundamental moral background, we will finally wind up with a totalitarian government which does not believe in rights for anybody except the state.”

DunkingDan

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Canadian pre-licensing review starts for BWRX-300
« Reply #80 on: May 23, 2019, 07:20:09 PM »
GE Hitachi Nuclear Energy (GEH) has initiated a vendor design review by the Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission (CNSC) for its BWRX-300 small modular reactor.

The CNSC's pre-licensing vendor design review is an optional service to provide an assessment of a nuclear power plant design based on a vendor's reactor technology. It is not a required part of the licensing process for a new nuclear power plant, but aims to verify the acceptability of a design with respect to Canadian nuclear regulatory requirements and expectations.
The review involves three phases: a pre-licensing assessment of compliance with regulatory requirements; an assessment of any potential fundamental barriers to licensing; and a follow-up phase allowing the vendor to respond to findings from the second phase. These findings will be taken into account in any subsequent construction licence application, increasing the efficiency of technical reviews, according to the CNSC. The duration of each review is estimated based on the vendor's proposed schedule. A Phase 1 review typically takes 12–18 months and a Phase 2 review takes 24 months.
GEH submitted its application in March this year for a service agreement with the CNSC to conduct a vendor design review of the BWRX-300. A service agreement is a legal document that establishes the terms and conditions between the CNSC and a reactor vendor.
The BWRX-300 is a 300 MWe small modular reactor (SMR) derived from GEH's 1520 MWe Economic Simplified Boiling Water Reactor (ESBWR) design. According to GEH, the BWRX-300 leverages the design and licensing basis of the ESBWR, which received design certification from the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission in 2014.
In July last year, GEH announced it is to receive USD1.9 million in funding from the US Department of Energy to lead research into ways to efficiently building a power plant based on its BWRX-300. The research team includes Bechtel, Exelon, Hitachi-GE Nuclear Energy and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. The team will examine ways to simplify the reactor design, reduce plant construction costs, and lower operations and maintenance costs for the BWRX-300. The research aims to identify ways to reduce plant completion costs by 40-60% compared with other SMR designs in development.
"We are designing the BWRX-300 small modular reactor to be cost competitive with gas and renewables," said Jon Ball, executive vice president of nuclear plant projects for GEH. "This review is an important step in the commercialisation of this breakthrough technology."
According to Wilmington, North Carolina based GEH, "As the tenth evolution of the boiling water reactor, the BWRX-300 represents the simplest, yet most innovative BWR design since GE began developing nuclear reactors in 1955."
Established in 2007, GEH is a global nuclear alliance created by GE and Hitachi to serve the global nuclear industry.
A number of SMR designs are currently undergoing vendor design reviews by the CNSC. Terrestrial Energy's Integral Molten Salt Reactor was the first advanced reactor to complete the first phase of the CNSC's regulatory pre-licensing review in November 2017.
Researched and written by World Nuclear News

President Harry S. Truman said: “The fundamental basis of this nation’s laws was given to Moses on the Mount.  The fundamental basis of our Bill of Rights comes from the teachings…  If we don't have the proper fundamental moral background, we will finally wind up with a totalitarian government which does not believe in rights for anybody except the state.”

HK_Vol

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Re: Electricity Update Pt 7
« Reply #81 on: May 24, 2019, 01:01:43 AM »
https://www.eia.gov/todayinenergy/detail.php?id=39552#

SNIP:
According to EIA’s most recent electric generator inventory, 32 dams that currently do not generate electricity are planned to be converted to hydroelectric dams, which will add more than 330 megawatts (MW) of electric generating capacity to the grid over the next several years.

The United States has more than 90,000 dams, but only 3% of those currently support hydroelectric generators. Those generators have a total hydroelectric capacity of nearly 80,000 MW as of February 2019. Other dams are used solely for water management or navigational purposes and are referred to as nonpowered dams (NPDs).

HK_Vol

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Re: Electricity Update Pt 7
« Reply #82 on: May 26, 2019, 09:46:19 PM »
Pilgrim closes at the end of the week after 46 years....

https://www.boston25news.com/news/here-s-how-you-shut-down-a-47-year-old-nuclear-power-station/947625170

Here's how you shut down a 47-year-old nuclear power station

SNIP:
On May 31, the Pilgrim Nuclear Power Station will be shut down and the process of decommissioning the 47-year-old plant will begin.

In an exact replica of the nuclear power plant’s control room, engineers are practicing how to shut the plant down, reviewing procedures and preparing for contingencies.



Since 1972, the plant has looked out over Cape Cod Bay, producing 680 megawatts of power for hundreds of thousands of homes.

One of the big challenges is securing radioactive fuel that is stored on the site.

Plant spokesperson Patrick O’Brien said there will ultimately be 61 casks of spent fuel kept on the grounds of the plant.

The plant is currently owned by Entergy which had planned to follow a protocol that allows for 60 years to complete the decommissioning process. The ultimate goal is to return the site to its former condition.

Now, the facility might be sold to a company called Holtec which says it can expedite the timetable and do the clean-up in eight years.


DunkingDan

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Re: Electricity Update Pt 7
« Reply #83 on: May 26, 2019, 09:51:35 PM »
Pilgrim closes at the end of the week after 46 years....

https://www.boston25news.com/news/here-s-how-you-shut-down-a-47-year-old-nuclear-power-station/947625170

Here's how you shut down a 47-year-old nuclear power station

SNIP:
On May 31, the Pilgrim Nuclear Power Station will be shut down and the process of decommissioning the 47-year-old plant will begin.

In an exact replica of the nuclear power plant’s control room, engineers are practicing how to shut the plant down, reviewing procedures and preparing for contingencies.



Since 1972, the plant has looked out over Cape Cod Bay, producing 680 megawatts of power for hundreds of thousands of homes.

One of the big challenges is securing radioactive fuel that is stored on the site.

Plant spokesperson Patrick O’Brien said there will ultimately be 61 casks of spent fuel kept on the grounds of the plant.

The plant is currently owned by Entergy which had planned to follow a protocol that allows for 60 years to complete the decommissioning process. The ultimate goal is to return the site to its former condition.

Now, the facility might be sold to a company called Holtec which says it can expedite the timetable and do the clean-up in eight years.
Reprocess the fuel as we use to before Pres. Peanut Man - I swear Billy had to be smarter - Store the rest at Yucca mtn. 
President Harry S. Truman said: “The fundamental basis of this nation’s laws was given to Moses on the Mount.  The fundamental basis of our Bill of Rights comes from the teachings…  If we don't have the proper fundamental moral background, we will finally wind up with a totalitarian government which does not believe in rights for anybody except the state.”

 

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