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Topic: Electricity Update Pt 6

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DunkingDan

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Climate goal demands huge boost in Chinese nuclear
« Reply #28 on: November 16, 2018, 03:17:41 PM »
hina's nuclear generating capacity must increase to 554 GWe by 2050 if the country is to fulfill its part in meeting a proposed target of limiting global temperature rise to below 1.5°C, according to a study by the National Development and Reform Commission's Energy Research Institute.

The Paris Climate Change Agreement, which entered into force in November 2016, aims to limit the global temperature rise to below 2°C by 2100. The agreement also aims to drive efforts to limit temperature increases to below 1.5°C.
Researchers at China's Energy Research Institute analysed the nuclear power capacity needed in the country by 2050 to realise the 1.5°C target, as well as the feasibility, necessary measures and difficulty. The results were published in Advances in Climate Change Research earlier this year.
China's nuclear power capacity will need to increase from 26 GWe in 2015 to 554 GWe in 2050, the study concluded. The share of nuclear power in country's energy mix would increase from 3% to 28% over this period.
The study noted that, up to the end of August 2017, 37 power reactors were in operation in China, with a combined generating capacity of 35,820 MWe. A further 19 reactors with an installed capacity of 22,140 were under construction.
An additional 290 reactors will need to be constructed in order to add a further 361.3 to 433.3 GWe of generating capacity, depending on the size of the reactors built.
"Only if the additional nuclear reactors all feature large capacities similar to CAP1400 in the future, and the annual uptime of nuclear power plants reaches 7500 hours, can the demand of the 1.5°C target for nuclear power in China be met narrowly."
To achieve this growth in nuclear generating capacity, new reactors must be built at a rate of ten per year up to 2046. China's three major equipment manufacturing bases currently have the capacity to supply 10-12 reactors annually, the study notes. However, the country's nuclear power plant construction capacity would need to double. In addition, the workforce required to operate nuclear power plants would also be ten-times the current size.
With regards to the cost of constructing up to 433.3 GWe of new nuclear capacity, the study says that assuming an "all-in cost" of CNY20,000 (USD2867) per kW, an investment of more than CNY8.7 trillion (USD1.3 trillion) will be required. Based on investment in new capacity over the past few years, the 2050 total investment demand is "feasible".
"If by 2050, around 21% of China's electricity is generated with nuclear energy, nuclear and renewable power will basically account for over 80% in the power mix," the report concludes. "In such context, total installed nuclear power capacity only needs to reach around 415 GWe, which is easy considering available site resources, nuclear power construction capacity, available funds, and the operation and management talents pool."
It added, "Such massive development also needs public acceptance, which in fact already affects the development of China's nuclear power and will have more impact in the future. Therefore, significant improvement of public acceptance has become an important work and must be carried forward across the country."
The Energy Research Institute of the National Development and Reform Commission was established in 1980. It is a national research organisation conducting comprehensive studies on China's energy issues. The scope of research conducted by ERI covers the fields of energy production, distribution, and consumption. The main focus is on soft scientific studies in the fields of energy economy, energy efficiency, energy and the environment, and renewable energy.
A large increase in the use of nuclear power would help keep global warming to below 1.5 degrees, according to a United Nations report published earlier this month. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) special report - Global Warming of 1.5 degrees - was commissioned by governments at the Paris climate talks in 2015 and will inform the COP24 summit in Katowice, Poland this December.
The nuclear industry has set the Harmony goal for nuclear energy to provide 25% of global electricity by 2050. This will require trebling nuclear generation from its present level. Some 1000 GWe of new nuclear generating capacity will need to be constructed by then to achieve that goal.
     
Researched and written by World Nuclear News
President Harry S. Truman said: “The fundamental basis of this nation’s laws was given to Moses on the Mount.  The fundamental basis of our Bill of Rights comes from the teachings…  If we don't have the proper fundamental moral background, we will finally wind up with a totalitarian government which does not believe in rights for anybody except the state.”

DunkingDan

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The spiralling environmental cost of our lithium battery addiction
« Reply #29 on: November 17, 2018, 12:03:23 PM »
As the world scrambles to replace fossil fuels with clean energy, the environmental impact of finding all the lithium required could become a major issue in its own right
ere’s a thoroughly modern riddle: what links the battery in your smartphone with a dead yak floating down a Tibetan river? The answer is lithium – the reactive alkali metal that powers our phones, tablets, laptops and electric cars.
In May 2016, hundreds of protestors threw dead fish onto the streets of Tagong, a town on the eastern edge of the Tibetan plateau. They had plucked them from the waters of the Liqi river, where a toxic chemical leak from the Ganzizhou Rongda Lithium mine had wreaked havoc with the local ecosystem.
There are pictures of masses of dead fish on the surface of the stream. Some eyewitnesses reported seeing cow and yak carcasses floating downstream, dead from drinking contaminated water. It was the third such incident in the space of seven years in an area which has seen a sharp rise in mining activity, including operations run by BYD, the world’ biggest supplier of lithium-ion batteries for smartphones and electric cars. After the second incident, in 2013, officials closed the mine, but when it reopened in April 2016, the fish started dying again.
Lithium-ion batteries are a crucial component of efforts to clean up the planet. The battery of a Tesla Model S has about 12 kilograms of lithium in it, while grid storage solutions that will help balance renewable energy would need much more.
Demand for lithium is increasing exponentially, and it doubled in price between 2016 and 2018. According to consultancy Cairn Energy Research Advisors, the lithium ion industry is expected to grow from 100 gigawatt hours (GWh) of annual production in 2017, to almost 800 GWhs in 2027.
Much more at link
President Harry S. Truman said: “The fundamental basis of this nation’s laws was given to Moses on the Mount.  The fundamental basis of our Bill of Rights comes from the teachings…  If we don't have the proper fundamental moral background, we will finally wind up with a totalitarian government which does not believe in rights for anybody except the state.”

DunkingDan

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The advantages of Small Modular Reactors
« Reply #30 on: November 19, 2018, 02:56:59 PM »
The size of a small modular reactor gives it several advantages over large conventional nuclear power plant designs. Here, Vincent Zabielski, senior lawyer at Pillsbury Shaw Pittman, looks at what the future might hold for SMRs.

The first automobile was a steam-powered wagon built in 1769 by French inventor Nicolas-Joseph Cugnot. Over the course of the next century, improvements were introduced by various inventors, and in 1913 Henry Ford created the first mass-produced automobile - the Ford Model T. Moving from one-at-a-time production to a factory production line, the Model T revolutionised transportation, making the automobile affordable and available to a far wider market than had previously been possible.
Like the first automobiles, today’s large nuclear reactors are largely produced one-at-a-time, with each new one different from the last. Despite efforts to standardise designs, it is not uncommon for even different units at the same power plant to have significant differences in design. Like the early automobile industry, the current market for nuclear power is largely limited to wealthy buyers with deep pockets, but are we on the cusp of nuclear power’s Henry Ford moment? It certainly looks like it.
SMRs promise to bring nuclear power to the masses in much the same way that the Ford Model T brought mobility to the masses over a hundred years ago. But first, what is an SMR?
SMRs are small. And modular.



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President Harry S. Truman said: “The fundamental basis of this nation’s laws was given to Moses on the Mount.  The fundamental basis of our Bill of Rights comes from the teachings…  If we don't have the proper fundamental moral background, we will finally wind up with a totalitarian government which does not believe in rights for anybody except the state.”

DunkingDan

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A clear message on nuclear and climate change
« Reply #31 on: November 23, 2018, 12:50:37 PM »
The role nuclear power plays in the fight against climate change should be made "clear, accessible and palatable for all", Her Royal Highness Princess Sumaya bint El Hassan told delegates at the International Atomic Energy Agency's Scientific Forum held in Vienna on 18 September. Princess Sumaya is president of the Royal Scientific Society, a Jordanian applied research institution, consultation and technical service provider. The theme of this year's forum was 'Nuclear Technology for Climate: Mitigation, Monitoring and Adaptation'. The following is the text of her speech.

"The theme of this Scientific Forum is one that resonates with many in the global scientific community. However, we must do all we can to extend discussion to the spheres of political and civil society.
As we struggle to combat climate change, and even to win a fraught war of words in some unexpected arenas, we must make the notion of Nuclear Technology for Climate clear, accessible and palatable for all. We here today are fully aware of the vital role that nuclear technology must play in mitigation, monitoring and adaptation. It is our duty to ensure that the wider world may also understand this, and support measures to harness nuclear technology in the struggle against climate change.
Your efforts here, and beyond this forum, will make a vital contribution to our global endeavours to achieve the Sustainable Development Goals and to truly empower the Paris Agreement. You in this room represent a vital response to human-made challenges with thoughtful human ingenuity.
It is perhaps inevitable that many in our world should feel disappointed and perhaps even despairing of any hope for a future that is worthy of us. But that is not who we are as a human family. Circumstances have conspired to make durable progress, in politics and development, seem occasionally challenging or frustrating. We are determined to do better.
We have urgent questions to respond to such as how to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, and how to anticipate and adapt to the results of those inevitable changes to climate that are rapidly unfolding around our world.
There is no doubt that we face complex global, national and local challenges. The impacts of climate change are steadily becoming more apparent and, in many instances, are far more alarming than previously anticipated. We see more frequent extreme weather events that affect a growing percentage of the world’s population. Impacts as diverse as rising sea levels and the spread of plant and animal diseases and pests are affecting environments and ecosystems all across the planet.
Of course, it is the nature of such global challenges that poorer, less-developed nations must inevitably bear the brunt of the effects of an increase in average temperatures, and indeed, from those of greater temperature variation. The reality is that those nations and territories that bear the greatest responsibility for bringing about manmade climate change since the beginning of the Industrial Revolution are very likely to be the ones that are least harmed by its consequences.
To reference this is not a demand for recrimination, but rather a call to action for all nations to share responsibility and to contribute to devising solutions and responses that demonstrate the best of human ingenuity. Our borders are meaningless in the face of climate change and so should our means be borderless.
My own small country of Jordan presently emits less than three tons of CO2 per capita - around one-fifth of the US level, and half of the world’s average. Jordan’s contribution to the global greenhouse atmospheric stock since the pre-industrial era of 1870 is infinitesimally small. But we are determined to lead by example and to invest in a better global future.
We recognise that nuclear technology offers us all low-carbon power on a meaningful scale, and it must be one of our key, innovative means of mitigating CO2 emissions. However, at current global rates of adoption and installation, nuclear technology is having little impact on the fight against global warming. Ladies and Gentlemen: The Paris Agreement was silent on the role of nuclear energy. It is up to us to make its case and to communicate it well and widely.
It is certainly true that the governments or populations of many less industrialised countries, including Jordan, might prefer to use inexpensive fossil sources to fuel their development, as they seem so much more straightforward than advanced low carbon energy sources. However, Jordan, has chosen a different path, one that we believe the international community should celebrate. Our small and energy-deprived nation has embarked on an ambitious programme to develop both renewable and nuclear energy. We have done this not because we seek praise, but because it is the right thing to do - for our people, our region and our planet.
Solar and wind power are contributing greatly to our electricity production, but the challenge and cost of storage mean that these intermittent sources have yet to have the major impact that we hope for. However, as with many other nations with ambitions to ensure energy and climate security, we are facing major financial hurdles in the implementation of our desired nuclear power programme.
At the Paris Conference, the developed world reaffirmed a commitment to mobilize some USD100 billion a year in climate finance by 2020, and agreed to continue mobilising finance at a level of USD100 billion a year until 2025. This promise must come to fruition for nations like Jordan so that we may develop nuclear energy that is reliable and fit for the market.
Of course, the wider innovative use of nuclear technologies is essential to help advance climate science, to monitor climatic changes, and to aid adaptation to climate impacts. We are doing what we can. The inauguration of Jordan’s first research and training nuclear reactor in 2016 at the Jordan University of Science and Technology, and our support for SESAME, the Synchrotron-Light for Experimental Science and Applications in the Middle East, have demonstrated our commitment to nuclear technology in a range of research arenas, not least climate change.
Climate-smart agriculture to develop varieties of plants tolerant to drought, and to facilitate the selection of animals resistant to diseases, and the improved management of water resources, are just some of the areas in which nuclear technologies may have a dramatic impact today and in the future. Isotopic techniques may also help to better predict rain patterns in water-poor areas such as ours.
But we must all work together on challenges that will inevitably be shared. We must show ourselves to be innovative in how we use existing knowledge and how we develop future technologies. We members of the IAEA must explore together the synergies between nuclear power and other energy sources, especially renewables, and we must encourage development of a new generation of nuclear technologies, particularly from small modular reactors to meet the specific demands of newcomers. We may only achieve what we must in order to safeguard our planet by working together and by respecting our needs as human family. Security will depend on our collaboration and our creativity.
       
I wish you all well in your vital mission."
http://www.world-nuclear-news.org/Articles/Speech-A-clear-message-on-nuclear-and-climate-chan
President Harry S. Truman said: “The fundamental basis of this nation’s laws was given to Moses on the Mount.  The fundamental basis of our Bill of Rights comes from the teachings…  If we don't have the proper fundamental moral background, we will finally wind up with a totalitarian government which does not believe in rights for anybody except the state.”


DunkingDan

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EU needs nuclear to meet emissions target, report concludes
« Reply #33 on: November 27, 2018, 05:37:28 PM »
Nuclear must continue to account for at least one-quarter of the European Union's energy mix if the region is to meet its 2050 emission targets, a report commissioned by Foratom has concluded.
The European Commission is expected to set a strong decarbonisation target of up to 95% by 2050 in its strategy for long-term EU greenhouse gas emission reductions to be issued on 28 November.
Foratom, the European nuclear trade body, commissioned FTI-Compass Lexecon Energy Consulting to produce a study "to provide fact-based evidence to the policy debate".
The study - titled Pathways to 2050: role of nuclear in a low-carbon Europe - analyses the potential contribution of nuclear generation towards a low-carbon European economy based on three nuclear capacity scenarios: low (36 GWe), medium (103 GWe) and high (150 GWe). Foratom said the scenarios have been designed to cover a range of possible future developments for nuclear in Europe. Each scenario assumes a 95% decarbonisation of the energy mix in 2050, compared with 1990, as well as growth in electricity demand to about 4100 TWh from the current 3100 TWh.
The study also considers the European nuclear sector's contribution to several key energy policy objectives, namely security of supply, decarbonisation and sustainability, and affordability and competitiveness.
"Decarbonising the European energy mix by 2050 while maintaining security of supply will require the mobilisation of all low-carbon, secure and cost-effective power generation sources," the study says. "An efficient power sector transition towards low-carbon technologies will need to account for both carbon emissions and other environmental impacts, including air pollution, impact on land use and resource use."
The study concludes that, in the short- to medium-term, the continued operation of Europe's existing nuclear power plant fleet will help it meet emission targets and would "avoid the temporary increase of the emissions that could risk locking in fossil fuel investments". In the longer term, nuclear energy can support variable renewable sources by "providing proven, carbon-free dependable power and flexibility to the system and reducing the system's reliance on yet unproven storage technologies".
The study says that nuclear new build will need to "demonstrate significant cost reductions to succeed in liberalised European power markets". In addition, "the timely development of storage technologies including the reduction of their cost and/or flexible operation of nuclear will be critical to ensure the complementarity of nuclear and variable renewables." It suggests the power market should be designed to reward the "system value of dependable and flexible resources", and to provide stable long-term investment signals.
"The study finds that achieving the European emissions targets in a scenario with a significant early phasing out of nuclear plants would prove more challenging and increase costs for customers," said Fabien Roques, executive vice president of FTI Compass Lexecon Energy. "The results demonstrate how nuclear can contribute to an ambitious decarbonisation of the European economy."
Yves Desbazeille, director general of Foratom, said: "Nuclear power is a low-carbon technology which is available today. Instead of focusing on technologies which have yet to be proven, both technically and financially, the EU should be promoting those which can already provide the low-carbon electricity which Europe needs. Only by doing so, does the EU stand a chance of meeting its 2050 decarbonisation targets."
The 128 nuclear power reactors (with a combined capacity of 119 GWe) operating in 14 of the 28 EU member states currently account for over one-quarter of the electricity generated in the whole of the EU. Nuclear accounts for 53% of the EU's carbon-free electricity.
The global nuclear industry has set the Harmony goal for nuclear energy to provide 25% of global electricity by 2050. This will require trebling nuclear generation from its present level. Some 1000 GWe of new nuclear generating capacity will need to be constructed by then to achieve that goal.
     
Researched and written by World Nuclear News

http://www.world-nuclear-news.org/Articles/EU-needs-nuclear-to-meet-emissions-target,-report
President Harry S. Truman said: “The fundamental basis of this nation’s laws was given to Moses on the Mount.  The fundamental basis of our Bill of Rights comes from the teachings…  If we don't have the proper fundamental moral background, we will finally wind up with a totalitarian government which does not believe in rights for anybody except the state.”

Cincydawg

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Re: Electricity Update Pt 6
« Reply #34 on: November 27, 2018, 05:43:28 PM »
Nuclear power is insanely unpopular in Europe outside France, and even there many folks don't like it, but they are stuck with it.

The voters are often not rational.

DunkingDan

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Taiwanese vote to keep nuclear in energy mix
« Reply #35 on: November 29, 2018, 10:43:56 AM »
he Taiwanese people have voted against the government's policy to phase out the use of nuclear energy by 2025 in a referendum held alongside local elections on 24 November.
Taiwan's Democratic Progressive Party (DPP) was elected to government in January 2016 having a policy of creating a "nuclear-free homeland" by 2025. Shortly after taking office, the DPP government passed an amendment to the Electricity Act, passing its phase-out policy into law.
The referendum proposal asked voters whether they agree with abolishing Paragraph 1 of Article 95 of the Electricity Act, which stipulates that "all nuclear energy-based power-generating facilities shall completely cease operations by 2025".
A total of 5,895,560 votes were cast in favour of dropping the clause from the Electricity Act, while 4,014,215 voted to retain it, the Central Election Commission announced early yesterday morning. A minimum of 5,000,000 votes were required to pass the referendum.
The call for a referendum on the government's phase-out policy was led by pro-nuclear and pro-democracy activist Shih-Hsiu Huang, co-founder of Nuclear Myth-Busters.
Under Taiwanese law, petitioners must deliver an initial 2000 signatures before gaining permission to spend six months gathering more signatures. The pro-nuclear activists reportedly submitted the initial signatures in March, but did not get permission until July to gather further signatures.
In August, former Taiwanese president Ma Ying-jeou endorsed the referendum and joined pro-nuclear environmentalists in gathering signatures on the streets of Taipei.
Organisers said they delivered 315,000 signatures to the CEC on 6 September - more than the required 282,000 for a referendum. An additional 24,000 signatures were delivered on 13 September, which the CEC rejected after the deadline for submitting them was brought forward.
In protest to the CEC's rejection of the signatures, Huang began a hunger strike the same day. However, after 140 hours without food, he was rushed to hospital on 19 September with high blood pressure and a fast heartbeat. Two fellow activists continued the hunger strike on Huang's behalf.
Ten renowned scientists, conservationists, energy experts and pro-democracy advocates wrote to President Tsai Ing-wen on 19 September to "express their concern" over the government-run CEC's handling of the proposed referendum.
"We urge you and the CEC to accept all signatures delivered before the official deadline of 14 September, and to treat the petitioners fairly," they said in a joint letter. "Whether you support or oppose nuclear energy, it is vital that the people of Taiwan be able to deliberate and decide on this matter themselves."
The CEC said on 12 October that the petitioners had fallen short of the legal threshold to launch a referendum by 2326 signatures. However, on 17 October the Taipei High Administrative Court ordered the commission to accept the additional signatures submitted on 13 September.
However, CEC announced on 23 October that, taking the additional signatures into account, the petitioners had sufficient signatures to include the referendum in local elections on 24 November.
Taiwan has four operable nuclear power reactors - two each at the Kuosheng and Maanshan plants - which account for around 15% of the island's electricity generation. Construction of two units at Lungmen began in 1999, but the project has been beset with political, legal and regulatory delays. The completed unit 1 was mothballed in July 2015, while construction of unit 2 was suspended in April 2014.
"We will immediately ask the government to start up non-operating reactors and extend the lives of the others," Huang was quoted as saying by Forbes. "If the government doesn't do the right thing, we will put another pro-nuclear referendum on the ballot in 2020."
Voters also approved a proposal to stop the construction or expansion of coal-fired power stations, including the Shen Ao plant currently under construction. They also voted in favour of reducing "by 1% year by year" the output of coal-fired power plants.
State-owned Taipower respects the referendum results related to energy, but will still follow the policies of the government, company spokesman Hsu Tsao-hua told Focus Taiwan.
Voters also supported the continued ban on agricultural imports and food from areas in Japan affected by the March 2011 accident at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant.
       
Researched and written by World Nuclear News
President Harry S. Truman said: “The fundamental basis of this nation’s laws was given to Moses on the Mount.  The fundamental basis of our Bill of Rights comes from the teachings…  If we don't have the proper fundamental moral background, we will finally wind up with a totalitarian government which does not believe in rights for anybody except the state.”

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China General Nuclear ready to ramp up UK ambitions
« Reply #36 on: December 06, 2018, 03:02:39 PM »
Following the withdrawal of NuGeneration, China General Nuclear is ready to ramp-up its plans for a new plant at Bradwell based on its HPR1000 (Hualong One) design in order to keep the UK's nuclear power programme on track, Robert Davies, chief operating officer of CGN UK said today.

Speaking at the Nuclear Industry Association's Nuclear 2018 conference in London, Davies said there is a gap in the UK's nuclear programme following Toshiba's decision last month to withdraw from its nuclear new-build project in the UK and to wind up NuGen.
"The expected sequence of reactors coming online has been interrupted," Davies said. "We will bring forward significantly the date at which we expect the first UK HPR1000 to enter commercial operation. We are confident we can close that gap by bringing Bradwell into operation much sooner. Rescheduling the project, bringing forward COD [commercial operation date], bringing forward FID [final investment decision] and focusing on a target COD of circa 2030."
Under a strategic investment agreement signed in October 2016, CGN agreed to take a 33.5% stake in EDF Energy's Hinkley Point C project in Somerset, as well as jointly develop new nuclear power plants at Sizewell in Suffolk and Bradwell in Essex. The Hinkley Point C and Sizewell C plants will be based on France's EPR reactor technology, while the new plant at Bradwell in Essex will feature the Hualong One design.
As part of that agreement, CGN formed a joint venture company with EDF Energy to seek regulatory approval for a UK version of the Hualong One design.
Last month the UK's Office for Nuclear Regulation and the Environment Agency completed "initial high-level scrutiny" of the UK HPR1000 reactor design. The design now moves onto the third of four stages in the Generic Design Assessment process.
Davies said CGN's confidence in ramping up its plans stems from its experience in delivering new nuclear projects. Earlier this year CGN brought the world's first EPR - Taishan 1 - into commercial operation.
"Taishan is bringing confidence and certainty to Hinkley Point C, with CGN bringing to HPC not just money, but also engineering and project expertise," he said.
CGN has also gained confidence from the construction of two demonstration HPR1000 reactors at the Fangchenggang site in China's Guangxi Autonomous Region.
"We achieved dome lifting earlier in the year and we expect to reach COD within two-and-a-half years."
He also noted that CGN is now the third largest nuclear enterprise in the world, with 21 units in operation and a further seven under construction.
"Our experience in China demonstrates the impact of the fleet effect. That's why we need to commit to a long-term programme, a coherent programme, underpinned by government. In our case, Hinkley Point C paved the way for Sizewell C, paving the way for Bradwell B.
"If we as a nation do not commit, then we will see none of the benefits of scale, prices will remain high and UK energy policy will fail to deliver the reliable, secure and clean energy that we will need more and more for the world's electric vehicles, artificial intelligence and cloud computing.
"We must go low-carbon now - we cannot wait. Our children, let alone our grandchildren, will not forgive us the dithering while the world warms. We are to make and keep to decisions today that will deliver what we need tomorrow or the UK will never catch up with what it needs. We collectively - and that includes our policymakers - must be bold and confident."
CGN's model is its 30-year partnership with France's EDF, he said. This partnership has built nuclear power plants in China and is now developing and delivering projects in the UK through its four joint ventures.
"We have built and are building reactors on a scale and at a rate the UK can only imagine," he said, noting that China has plans for a further 100 GWe of nuclear capacity in operation by 2030.
"In the last two years, we have invested GBP2.4 billion (USD3.1 billion) in the UK, mostly in HPC," Davies said. "Our commitment to the UK is GBP10 billion in energy - most of that in nuclear, but this does not include any of the plant construction costs at Bradwell or other sites.
"Today we bring expertise, capability and money, as we've evidence from HPC. In simple terms, we have ramped up. We are bringing forward."
       
Researched and written by World Nuclear News
President Harry S. Truman said: “The fundamental basis of this nation’s laws was given to Moses on the Mount.  The fundamental basis of our Bill of Rights comes from the teachings…  If we don't have the proper fundamental moral background, we will finally wind up with a totalitarian government which does not believe in rights for anybody except the state.”

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Fusion reactions project attracts UK funding
« Reply #37 on: December 07, 2018, 11:40:56 AM »
The UK Atomic Energy Authority (UKAEA) and First Light Fusion are collaborating on a project to convert fusion reactions into heat to enable clean power production. The 'fusion island' project is to be partly funded by a grant from the Department for Business, Energy & Industrial Strategy (BEIS).

First Light Fusion plans to demonstrate fusion by the middle of next year and to demonstrate 'gain' - generating more energy than that required to create fusion reactions - by 2024. No fusion energy project has achieved this yet. A key step in the development of First Light’s vision is the creation of a fusion island, a sub-system that converts fusion energy into heat and manages fuel supply in a fusion power plant.
Thanks in part to an Energy Entrepreneurs Fund grant from BEIS, a fusion island concept development project is now under way. BEIS created the competitive funding scheme to support the development and demonstration of state-of-the-art technologies, products and processes in energy efficiency, power generation and heat and electricity storage.
Nick Hawker, founder and CEO of First Light Fusion, said: "We believe that the UK is one of the very best countries in the world in which to pursue our endeavour, powering a world worth inheriting. We are delighted that BEIS has recognised the quality, value and credibility of the work we have done so far."
Ian Chapman, CEO of UKAEA, said: "Fusion energy is an extraordinarily important area, and UKAEA is proud to be the home to world-leading expertise in the field. We are very pleased to be able to work with First Light Fusion and provide them with access to these capabilities for their exciting fusion programme."
In July, First Light Fusion successfully fired the first test 'shot' on one of the six limbs of its newly-constructed pulsed power machine and swiftly proceeded to test three-limb shots in September. The full machine is currently being commissioned, ahead of schedule. Once fully commissioned, Machine 3 will be the only pulsed power machine of its scale in the world dedicated to researching fusion energy. It can discharge up to 200,000 volts and more than 14 million amperes - the equivalent of nearly 500 simultaneous lightning strikes - within two microseconds. The GBP3.6 million (USD4.6 million) machine will use some 3 kilometres of high-voltage cables and another 10 kilometres of diagnostic cables.
Machine 3 will be used to further research First Light Fusion’s technology as the company seeks to demonstrate first fusion next year.
First Light uses a high-velocity projectile to create a shockwave to collapse a cavity containing plasma inside a 'target'. The design of these targets is First Light's "technical USP", the company said.
First Light Fusion was founded by Professor Yiannis Ventikos, who is currently the head of the Mechanical Engineering Department at University College, London, and Dr Nicholas Hawker, formerly an engineering lecturer at Lady Margaret Hall, Oxford. The company was spun out from the University of Oxford in July 2011, with seed capital from IP Group plc, Parkwalk Advisors Ltd and private investors. Invesco and OSI provided follow-on capital.
UKAEA, a research organisation responsible for the development of nuclear, is an executive non-departmental public body of BEIS.
   
Researched and written by World Nuclear News
President Harry S. Truman said: “The fundamental basis of this nation’s laws was given to Moses on the Mount.  The fundamental basis of our Bill of Rights comes from the teachings…  If we don't have the proper fundamental moral background, we will finally wind up with a totalitarian government which does not believe in rights for anybody except the state.”

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Re: Electricity Update Pt 6
« Reply #38 on: December 07, 2018, 12:25:46 PM »

DunkingDan

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Work starts on Kursk II-2 foundation plate
« Reply #39 on: December 13, 2018, 06:39:34 PM »
Construction work has started on the foundation plate of the reactor building of unit 2 of the Kursk II nuclear power plant in western Russia. This is the second of the VVER-TOI design nuclear reactors.

Kursk II will replace four RBMK units currently operating at the site and commissioning of the first two Kursk II units will be synchronised with the closure of Kursk 1 and 2. It will initially consist of two 1200 MWe VVER-TOI units that will each add 25% to reactor capacity compared with units of the VVER-1000 design. The design also provides for a doubling of the service life of reactor equipment - from 30 to 60 years, with the possibility of extending this to 80 years.
Trest Rossam LLC began laying reinforcement for the lower part of the base plate of the reactor building of Kursk II on 7 December, Russian state nuclear corporation Rosatom said today. Installation of 105 reinforced blocks with a total weight of more than 1600 tons will then be installed, enabling pouring of first concrete in the first half of next year, it added.
Kursk Nuclear Power Plant Director Vyacheslav Fedyukin said the work was ahead of schedule thanks to improvements to the technology used and to the experience gained from work at unit 1.
Other work under way at the Kursk II-2 construction site includes concreting the foundation plate of the block pumping station, the first part of the main cooling water system, as well as installation of the main cooling water pipeline system, within the boundaries of the turbine building, Rosatom said. Installation of the first tier of the inner containment shell will be carried out in May and work has also begun on preparations to lay concrete for the auxiliary reactor building, it added.
The new units meet the latest International Atomic Energy Agency safety requirements, Rosatom said, including a core melt trap - a device provided to catch the molten core material (corium) of a reactor in case of a meltdown and prevent it from escaping the containment building - and a passive heat removal system, which allows the reactor core to be cooled in the absence of power supply due to natural air circulation. The reactor design also features enhanced seismic resistance, it said.
 
Researched and written by World Nuclear News
President Harry S. Truman said: “The fundamental basis of this nation’s laws was given to Moses on the Mount.  The fundamental basis of our Bill of Rights comes from the teachings…  If we don't have the proper fundamental moral background, we will finally wind up with a totalitarian government which does not believe in rights for anybody except the state.”

DunkingDan

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Major concrete pour at Hinkley Point C
« Reply #40 on: December 19, 2018, 10:29:28 AM »
First concrete has been poured for the 'common raft' of Hinkley Point C, on which the reactor building and safety systems will be constructed. The major milestone in the construction was announced by EDF Energy today.

The raft will be a 4500 tonne cross-shaped platform of nuclear grade concrete, reinforced with steel, which will support the reactor building and the fuel building as well as four separate sections for electrical and safeguards systems.
EDF Energy said the first 2000 cubic metre portion was poured over 30 hours to a thickness of 3.2 metres. Four more pours will follow before the raft will be complete, scheduled in 2019. Consent for this work was granted by the Office for Nuclear Regulation on 23 November, which judged EDF Energy and its contractors ready to proceed past this so-called hold point.
The raft is the second safety-related concrete item to be constructed at Hinkley Point C. In March 2017 EDF Energy placed structural concrete for the technical galleries which run beneath the plant.
Hinkley Point C is a new nuclear power plant in Somerset, England. With two EPR reactors designed by Framatome it is planned to supply about 7% of UK electricity, with the first reactor starting up in 2023. EDF Energy said yesterday's concrete pour was the final milestone for this year.
 
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President Harry S. Truman said: “The fundamental basis of this nation’s laws was given to Moses on the Mount.  The fundamental basis of our Bill of Rights comes from the teachings…  If we don't have the proper fundamental moral background, we will finally wind up with a totalitarian government which does not believe in rights for anybody except the state.”

DunkingDan

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First EPR enters commercial operation
« Reply #41 on: December 22, 2018, 05:55:35 PM »
Unit 1 of the Taishan nuclear power plant in Guangdong province has completed all commissioning work and is qualified for commercial operation, China General Nuclear (CGN) announced yesterday. It becomes the first EPR reactor to reach the milestone.

Taishan 1 completed a full-power continuous demonstration test run of 168 hours yesterday, CGN announced in a statement to the Hong Kong Stock Exchange. Although CGN must still obtain necessary permits and documentation, the unit is now considered to be in commercial operation.
"The successful outcome of this test marks the achievement of all prerequisite conditions for the reactor's safe operation," CGN and EDF said in a joint press release today.
Taishan 1 and 2 are the first two reactors based on the EPR design to be built in China. They form part of an EUR8 billion (USD9 billion) contract signed by Areva and CGN in November 2007. The Taishan project - 140 kilometres west of Hong Kong - is owned by the Guangdong Taishan Nuclear Power Joint Venture Company Limited, a joint venture between EDF (30%) and CGN. Unit 1 of the power plant started construction in 2009, followed by unit 2 in 2010. These two units are the third and fourth EPR units under construction globally, after the Olkiluoto 3 project in Finland and the Flamanville 3 project in France. The EPR design adopted in Taishan was developed by Framatome.
CGN began loading fuel assemblies into Unit 1's core on 10 April following the issuance that day of a permit from the NNSA. The reactor achieved first criticality on 6 June and was connected to the grid on 29 June. Taishan 2 - which is in the equipment installation phase - is scheduled to begin operating next year.
Framatome Chairman and CEO Bernard Fontana noted, "As designer of the EPR, Framatome - now part of the EDF group - is delighted to witness the commercial start-up of the Taishan 1 project, a milestone that rewards the teams' sustained efforts over recent years." Framatome contributed major parts of the plant's nuclear scope including nuclear steam supply system, safety instrumentation & control, procurement and support to erection and commissioning.
"Taishan 1's entry into operation marks the accomplishment of the task set by the Chinese and French heads of state," said He Yu, chairman of CGN. "As the world's first EPR project, Taishan offers valuable lessons and solutions for the construction of similar reactors worldwide and it will play a demonstrative and supportive role in the joint construction of the Hinkley Point C project in the UK by CGN and EDF."
EDF Chairman and CEO Jean-Bernard Lévy said: "The commissioning of Taishan 1, the world's first EPR to enter into commercial operation, is a key achievement for the entire French nuclear industry as it demonstrates its capacity to develop this third-generation nuclear technology in line with the highest safety and quality standards."
He added, "EPR is a major asset in addressing the challenge facing many countries: reconciling the growth of electricity demand with the need to reduce carbon dioxide emissions. The Taishan project also illustrates our approach to developing EPRs worldwide, in cooperation with valued partners such as CGN."
"Taishan 1 is providing EPR reactors around the world with its experience in project management and technological expertise," said EDF and CGN. "The first reactors to benefit from this experience are the two Hinkley Point C units currently being built in the UK."
Under a strategic investment agreement signed in October 2016, CGN agreed to take a 33.5% stake in EDF Energy's Hinkley Point C project in Somerset, as well as jointly develop new nuclear power plants at Sizewell in Suffolk and Bradwell in Essex. The Hinkley Point C and Sizewell C plants will be based on France's EPR reactor technology, while the new plant at Bradwell in Essex will feature China's Hualong One design.
Olkiluoto 3, the first-of-a-kind EPR, has completed hot functional tests and is preparing to load fuel, while fuel loading at the Flamanville EPR is scheduled to begin by the end of this year.
     
Researched and written by World Nuclear News
President Harry S. Truman said: “The fundamental basis of this nation’s laws was given to Moses on the Mount.  The fundamental basis of our Bill of Rights comes from the teachings…  If we don't have the proper fundamental moral background, we will finally wind up with a totalitarian government which does not believe in rights for anybody except the state.”

 

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