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Topic: Electricity Update Pt 5

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DunkingDan

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Completion of fuel loading at Tianwan 4
« Reply #56 on: September 04, 2018, 04:29:00 PM »

Fuel loading was started on 25 August and completed on 2 September, China National Nuclear Corporation (CNNC) announced today.
Rosatom said at the start of fuel loading that once all the assemblies had been loaded, then start-up and commissioning work would be carried out. The reactor will then be brought to the "minimum controllable power level", followed by the start of power generation.
Tianwan Phase I - units 1 and 2 - was constructed under a 1992 cooperation agreement between China and Russia. First concrete was poured in October 1999, and the units were commissioned in June 2007 and September 2007, respectively.
Tianwan Phase II - units 3 and 4 - are similar to the first stage of the Tianwan plant, comprising two AES-91 VVER-1000 units designed by Gidropress and supplied by Russian state nuclear corporation Rosatom. First concrete for unit 3 was poured in December 2012, while construction of the fourth unit began in September 2013. Unit 3 achieved first criticality on 29 September last year and was connected to the grid on 30 December. The unit entered commercial operation on 15 February having completed demonstration operation at nominal capacity for 100 hours. Unit 4 is expected to enter commercial operation in March 2019.
Construction of Tianwan Phase III - units 5 and 6 - was originally scheduled to start in early 2011. However, following the March 2011 accident at Japan's Fukushima Daiichi plant, the Chinese government suspended the approval of new nuclear power projects, including those two units.
The latest Five-Year Plan called for construction of Phase III of the Tianwan plant to be accelerated. China's State Council gave its approval for Tianwan units 5 and 6 - both featuring 1080 MWe ACPR1000 reactors - on 16 December 2015. First safety-related concrete was poured for unit 5 on 27 December 2015, with that for unit 6 poured on 7 September 2016. CNNC plans to put both units 5 and 6 into commercial operation by the end of 2021.
On 8 June, Russia and China signed four agreements, including for the construction of two VVER-1200 reactors as units 7 and 8 of the Tianwan plant. In addition, two VVER-1200 units are to be constructed at the new Xudabao site in Liaoning province.
The Tianwan plant is owned and operated by Jiangsu Nuclear Power Corporation, a joint venture between CNNC (50%), China Power Investment Corporation (30%) and Jiangsu Guoxin Group (20%).
   
Researched and written by World Nuclear News
President Harry S. Truman said: “The fundamental basis of this nation’s laws was given to Moses on the Mount.  The fundamental basis of our Bill of Rights comes from the teachings…  If we don't have the proper fundamental moral background, we will finally wind up with a totalitarian government which does not believe in rights for anybody except the state.”

DunkingDan

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Vessel installed at second Pakistani Hualong One
« Reply #57 on: September 07, 2018, 10:09:10 AM »
he pressure vessel for the Chinese-designed Hualong One reactor under construction as unit 3 of Pakistan's Karachi nuclear power plant has been hoisted into place.

The component was put into place within the unit's reactor building at 8:19am yesterday, China National Nuclear Corporation announced today. It said the milestone marked the unit's entry into the "full installation phase of key components".
The pressure vessel was independently designed by China Nuclear Power Research & Design Institute and was produced by China First Heavy Machinery Company Limited.
The installation of the pressure vessel followed that of the unit's three steam generators. CNNC noted that all four components had been installed within just 19 days, providing "a useful reference for the construction of other similar power stations".
The vessel and steam generators were all installed using CNNC's new method using an E-frame to "flip" the components. It said this method can improve efficiency and safety, as well as reducing labour intensity and reducing the chance of human error, compared with the traditional "fixed bracket" installation. The technique further improves the safety and economy of the "pre-introduction" construction method - where the main reactor equipment is installed before the dome of the containment building - which CNNC first used in a reactor of this type at Karachi 2.
Karachi 2 and 3 are the first export of China's Hualong One pressurised water reactor design, with construction of unit 2 beginning in 2015 and unit 3 in 2016. The units are scheduled for commercial operation in 2021 and 2022, respectively, when they will add a further 2322 MWe to Pakistan's existing nuclear generation capacity of 1355 MWe from five operating units: a small pressurised heavy water reactor at Karachi, and four Chinese-designed pressurised water reactors at Chashma. A third 1161 MWe Hualong One unit is planned for construction at Chashma.
Four Hualong One units - also known as HPR1000 - are under construction in China. Fanchenggang 3 and 4 and Fuqing 5 and 6 are all expected to enter commercial operation in 2019-2020.
 
Researched and written by World Nuclear News
President Harry S. Truman said: “The fundamental basis of this nation’s laws was given to Moses on the Mount.  The fundamental basis of our Bill of Rights comes from the teachings…  If we don't have the proper fundamental moral background, we will finally wind up with a totalitarian government which does not believe in rights for anybody except the state.”

DunkingDan

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CNNC completes design of district heating reactor
« Reply #58 on: September 08, 2018, 08:53:05 PM »
The preliminary design of the Yanlong swimming pool-type low-temperature reactor for district heating has been completed, China National Nuclear Corporation (CNNC) announced yesterday.

CNNC launched its independently researched and developed Yanlong reactor (referred to as the DHR-400) for district heating in November 2017. The move came shortly after the "49-2" pool-type light-water reactor developed by the China Institute of Atomic Energy continuously supplied heat for 168 hours.
CNNC said the Yanlong reactor - which an output of 400 MWt - has been developed based upon the company's safe and stable operation of pool-type experimental reactors over the past 50 years. It said the Yanlong is a "safe, economical and green reactor product targeting the demand for heating in northern cities". The reactor can be operated under low temperatures and normal pressures. It can be constructed near urban areas due to the zero risk of a meltdown and lack of emissions. In addition, the reactor is easy to decommission. The Yanlong "represents a relatively modest investment", according to CNNC.
"It's an effective way to improve China's energy resource structure by utilising nuclear energy for district heating, and to ease the increasing pressures on energy supplies," CNNC said. "Nuclear energy heating could also reduce emissions, especially as a key technological measure to combat haze during winter in northern China. Thus, it can benefit the environment and people's health in the long run."
The company added, "It can be constructed either inner land or on the coast, making it an especially good fit for northern inland areas, and it has an expected lifespan of around 60 years. In terms of costs, the thermal price is far superior to gas, and is comparably economical with coal and combined heat and power (CHP)."
The Chinese government has made clean-energy heating a priority. Last year, the authorities issued guidance on clean heating in winter in northern China. The National Energy Administration released a five-year plan, covering 2017-2021, highlighting the innovation of clean heating technology and consideration of nuclear heating.
Research work in China on the possible application of nuclear heat began in the early 1980s. During 1983-1984, the Institute of Nuclear Energy and Technology (INET) at Tsinghua University used its existing pool-type test reactor to provide space heat for nearby buildings. Meanwhile two types of nuclear heating reactors - one a deep pool type, the other a vessel type - were developed by INET. The vessel type reactor was selected as the main development direction. Construction of a 5 MWt experimental nuclear heating reactor (NHR5) at INET began in 1986 and was completed in 1989. The larger, demonstration-scale NHR200-II was developed from this.
A feasibility study on constructing China's first nuclear plant for district heating is being carried out by China General Nuclear and Tsinghua University. The plant would use the domestically-developed NHR200-II low-temperature heating reactor technology.
Small modular reactors (SMRs) will be used in the future not just for electrical generation but also for providing heating, Mingguang Zheng - president of Shanghai Nuclear Engineering Research & Design Institute and senior vice president of State Nuclear Power Technology Company - said today at the World Nuclear Association Symposium 2018.
He said China's current use of fossil fuels to provide heating creates very serious air pollution during the winter months. "To prevent air pollution and to enhance human life, we think that nuclear power, especially the use of nuclear energy to supply district heating, is very important," Zheng said.
   
Researched and written by World Nuclear News
President Harry S. Truman said: “The fundamental basis of this nation’s laws was given to Moses on the Mount.  The fundamental basis of our Bill of Rights comes from the teachings…  If we don't have the proper fundamental moral background, we will finally wind up with a totalitarian government which does not believe in rights for anybody except the state.”

DunkingDan

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nitial tests at UK pulsed power device
« Reply #59 on: September 12, 2018, 06:45:10 PM »
First Light Fusion (FLF) - a researcher of inertial confinement fusion - has successfully fired the first test 'shot' on one of the six limbs of its newly-constructed pulsed power device 'Machine 3'.

FLF - based in Oxford, England - announced today that the first test 'shot' was fired in late July. The company said it was able to repeat the test a few days later after all parts of Machine 3 had been checked and the data produced analysed, "proving the limb functions as designed".
Machine 3 will be capable of discharging up to 200,000 volts and in excess of 14 million ampere - the equivalent of nearly 500 simultaneous lightning strikes - within two microseconds, FLF said. The GBP3.6 million (USD4.6 million) machine will use some 3km of high voltage cables and another 10km of diagnostic cables.
Machine 3 will be used to further research FLF's technology as the company seeks to achieve first fusion. The company uses a high-velocity projectile to create a shockwave to collapse a cavity containing plasma inside a 'target'. The design of these targets is the company's "technical USP", FLF said.
"These were test shots but are very important nevertheless because they were the first 'end-to-end' tests of Machine 3," said Nicholas Hawker, founder and CEO of FLF. "The successful outcome de-risks the rest of the project because it was based on one of the six limbs of the device. The other five limbs are exact replicas of the one we tested."
He added, "It was a fantastic achievement for the team to be able to fire the first test shot just five months from the beginning of construction of what will be a unique facility once fully commissioned. There is nothing else like it in the world."
The next step in the technological development will be to achieve gain, whereby the amount of energy created outstrips that used to spark the reaction, FLF said.
Machine 3 - the only pulsed power machine of its scale in the world dedicated to researching fusion energy - remains on schedule to be commissioned by the end of this year.
FLF Ltd, was spun out from the University of Oxford in July 2011, with seed capital from the IP Group plc, Parkwalk Advisors Ltd and a number of angel investors. Until May 2014, the company was named Oxyntix Ltd.
   
Researched and written by World Nuclear News
President Harry S. Truman said: “The fundamental basis of this nation’s laws was given to Moses on the Mount.  The fundamental basis of our Bill of Rights comes from the teachings…  If we don't have the proper fundamental moral background, we will finally wind up with a totalitarian government which does not believe in rights for anybody except the state.”

DunkingDan

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Nuclear vital to decarbonisation, finds MIT study
« Reply #60 on: September 15, 2018, 12:59:45 PM »
The challenge of climate change will be more difficult and costly to solve unless nuclear energy is included in the energy mix, according to a newly released study from the Massachussetts Institute of Technology Energy Initiative (MITEI).

The future of nuclear energy in a carbon-constrained world, released today at an event in London, analyses the reasons behind a slowdown in nuclear energy growth and outlines measures that could be taken to arrest or reverse that trend, including moves to reduce the cost of building new nuclear capacity and creating a level playing field that would allow all low-carbon generation technologies to compete on their merits.
The study was led by MIT researchers in collaboration with Idaho National Laboratory and the University of Madison-Wisconsin, and is the eighth in a series exploring the role of technologies in meeting rapidly growing energy demand in a carbon-constrained world. The studies are intended to serve as guides to researchers, policymakers and industry.
"Our analysis demonstrates that realising nuclear energy's potential is essential to achieving a deeply decarbonised energy future in many regions of the world," study co-chair Jacopo Buongiorno, associate department head of the Nuclear Science and Engineering Department at MIT, said. "Incorporating new policy and business models, as well as innovations in construction that may make deployment of cost-effective nuclear power plants more affordable, could enable nuclear energy to help meet the growing global demand for energy generation while decreasing emissions to address climate change," he added.
The world is facing the challenge of drastically reducing emissions of greenhouse gases while simultaneously expanding energy access and economic opportunity to billions of people, the report notes. The electricity sector, with current emissions averaging about 500 grams carbon dioxide per kilowatt hour (gCO2/kWh), has been widely identified as an early candidate for deep decarbonisation, with 2050 targets as low as 50 gCO2/kWh widely discussed in international policy deliberations.
For most regions, meeting projected 2050 demands while reducing emissions will require a mix of electrical generation assets that is different to the current system, the report notes.
"While a variety of low- or zero-carbon technologies can be employed in various combinations, our analysis shows the potential contribution nuclear can make as a dispatchable low-carbon technology. Without that contribution, the cost of achieving deep decarbonisation targets increases significantly," the study finds.
Despite this promise, the prospects for the expansion of nuclear energy remain "decidedly dim" in many parts of the world, the study finds. The fundamental reason for this, it says, is cost, with new nuclear plants becoming costlier: a "disturbing trend [which] undermines nuclear energy's potential contribution and increases the cost of achieving deep decarbonisation".
To address this, the report discusses recommendations for nuclear plant construction, current and future reactor technologies, business models and policies, and reactor safety, regulation and licensing.
Changes in reactor construction, with an increased focus on using proven project and construction management practices to ensure the completion of projects on time and within budget, and the deployment of serially manufactured, standardised plants, would help to address cost concerns. This is applicable across all reactor concepts and designs, the study notes.
"Cost-cutting opportunities are pertinent to evolutionary Generation-III LWRs, small modular reactors, and Generation-IV reactors. Without design standardisation and innovations in construction approaches, we do not believe the inherent technological features of any of the advanced reactors will produce the level of cost reductions needed to make nuclear electricity competitive with other generation options," it says.
Public concern and policy issues
 
As well as cost, the growth of nuclear energy has been hindered by public concerns about the consequences of severe accidents. A shift towards reactor designs incorporating inherent and passive safety features - which could include core materials with high chemical and physical stability and engineered safety systems that require limited or no emergency AC power and minimal external intervention - are recommended to address safety concerns. As well as reducing the probability of severe accidents and mitigating offsite consequences in the event of an incident, such designs can also ease the licensing of new plants and accelerate their global deployment, the study finds.
The study's final recommendations are actions to be taken by policymakers, including the creation of a level playing field where factors such as the value of reducing CO2 emissions, which are external to the market, are taken into account.
"Policies that foreclose a role for nuclear energy discourage investment in nuclear technology. This may raise the cost of decarbonisation and slow progress towards climate change mitigation goals," it notes.
Incorporating CO2 emissions into electricity costs - for example through the implementation of zero-emission credits such as those introduced in New York and New Jersey - would recognise value to all "climate-friendly" energy technologies, it says.
"Nuclear generators, both existing plants and new builds, would be among the beneficiaries of a level, competitive playing field," the study says.
Governments should establish and support sites where companies can deploy prototype reactors for testing and operation, the study recommends. They should also establish funding programmes to support the development, demonstration and deployment of new nuclear technologies through: shared regulatory licensing costs; shared research and development costs; funding for the achievement of technical milestones; and production credits to reward the successful demonstration of new designs.
       
Researched and written by World Nuclear News
President Harry S. Truman said: “The fundamental basis of this nation’s laws was given to Moses on the Mount.  The fundamental basis of our Bill of Rights comes from the teachings…  If we don't have the proper fundamental moral background, we will finally wind up with a totalitarian government which does not believe in rights for anybody except the state.”

DunkingDan

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Viewpoint: What's really killing America's nuclear plants
« Reply #61 on: September 19, 2018, 06:32:37 PM »
The premature shutdown of America's nuclear power plants is nothing short of a national catastrophe, writes Jarret Adams.
The agreement to close prematurely the Indian Point Energy Center north of New York City felt like a gut punch. The latest in a string of closure announcements, Indian Point hurts so deeply because of its high-profile and proximity to the world's leading financial centre.
As many as two-thirds of America's 99 reactors could shut down by 2030. Today we are building four. The only way to change this trajectory in the near term is to convince more Americans that nuclear energy makes sense. But we are not doing enough to earn more supporters and remain too focused on finding technical solutions.
Nuclear energy produces - by a wide margin - the largest portion of America's carbon-free power. It is the nation's safest and most reliable source of electricity. The reality is that every time a nuclear plant shuts down the power that replaces it is less reliable, produces more emissions, and costs more.
But too few people know this or care. That is what is really driving nuclear energy out of business. The nuclear energy industry has not invested enough in telling people why they should value this important technology.
The same thing is happening in other countries with established nuclear fleets. If the US nuclear sector falls apart, others will follow.
Led by brilliant, hard-working engineers, the industry would rather find an engineering solution to a challenge than one involving squishy stuff like marketing and public relations.
When opponents claim nuclear plants are not safe enough, the industry develops a doohickey to make them even safer, even though nuclear energy is already America's safest source. This, of course, increases their costs.
When critics say that nuclear power is too expensive (and most vocal critics belong to organisations pursuing legal and regulatory actions to make it more so), the industry has pursued ambitious initiatives to cut costs.
Cutting costs and developing safer new technologies are important, but they are not enough to save the plants at risk.
If people care about the climate effects of closing plants, they should consider this: the five nuclear reactors that closed since 2013 annually produced about the same amount of carbon-free power as all US solar power in 2015 combined.
Six years after the incident at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear facility in Japan and faced with declining public support, the US nuclear sector is cutting spending on public outreach.
People inherently prefer subsidized wind and solar because they understand the simple technology and think they somehow seem safer. Without a carbon tax, highly unlikely at least at the federal level, nuclear energy is generally more expensive than fossil fuels.
As business guru Michael Porter noted, businesses must either be the cost leader or differentiate. With natural gas prices at historic lows, nuclear energy must differentiate itself.
How do other industries convince customers to pay more for a product that is more reliable, safer and environmentally friendly? They invest in more marketing, advertising, and public relations.
As we are witnessing in real time, treating nuclear-generated electricity as a commodity is a recipe for failure. Nuclear energy is a premium product and must be sold as such.
The professionals tasked with marketing and communication have performed heroically. But they need more resources if we are going to turn the tide.
Each nuclear plant that closes prematurely results in the loss of hundreds of high-paying jobs and hurts the local tax base.
Each nuclear plant that shuts down early makes our electricity less clean, less reliable and more expensive.
         
Each nuclear plant whose light goes out before its time should be a rallying cry for the diligent and dedicated people who build, operate and supply them. http://www.world-nuclear-news.org/Articles/What-s-really-killing-America-s-nuclear-plants
President Harry S. Truman said: “The fundamental basis of this nation’s laws was given to Moses on the Mount.  The fundamental basis of our Bill of Rights comes from the teachings…  If we don't have the proper fundamental moral background, we will finally wind up with a totalitarian government which does not believe in rights for anybody except the state.”

DunkingDan

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Major Pa. anthracite coal mine project to be financed by $1 million grant
« Reply #62 on: September 21, 2018, 06:27:13 PM »
MOUNT CARMEL - Coal could be coming out of the ground as early as next month at what is described as the largest current development in the commonwealth's anthracite region.
The rain has to let up for that to occur, Gregg Driscoll, president and chief executive officer of the Blaschak Coal Co., said Tuesday.
The company, based in Mahanoy City, is in the process of reopening an old surface mine north of Route 61 between Mount Carmel and Centralia in Columbia County. "We're excited about it," he said.
The state recently approved a $1 million Redevelopment Assistance Capital Program grant to help fund the project. The company sought $4.5 million.
Blaschak, owned by Milestone Partners Inc., a Radnor-based investment firm, expects to spend $13 million to reopen and provide equipment for the mine, Driscoll said. It already has invested a little more than $10 million, he said.
Preparation work includes removing material placed in the pit by the owner, Mallard Contracting, as part of a reclamation process, Driscoll said. 
Blaschak has signed a 20-year-lease with the Helfrick family that owns Mallard and anticipates mining between 200,000 and 300,000 tons of ready-to-burn anthracite annually, he said.
The coal will come from what is known as the "mammoth vein" that is 80 feet thick, he explained. It is one of 13 or 14 seams of coal in the anthracite region, he said.
Between 25 and 30 United Mine Workers Union members earning in the range of $65,000 to $85,000 a year will staff the facility, Driscoll said. "It's a good living wage," he said.
Some of the employees are coming from a closed mine near Centralia, he said. It will provide them with continued employment, he said.
"Anthracite has been an important part of the economy and culture of the eastern mining region in Pennsylvania for 200 years," Driscoll pointed out.
"Anthracite is used differently from bituminous coals and has both energy and non-energy uses.
"We are excited about the future of anthracite mining and distribution in Pennsylvania and see continued growth as a real and meaningful economic and environmental benefit to the region," he said.
In announcing the grant, Gov. Tom Wolf said the mine will provide a considerable production of high quality anthracite coal for more than 20 years.
"As mining progresses, the land will be reclaimed and made available for alternative uses in the community," he said. "Wages for the created jobs more than double the median household income in the region."
President Harry S. Truman said: “The fundamental basis of this nation’s laws was given to Moses on the Mount.  The fundamental basis of our Bill of Rights comes from the teachings…  If we don't have the proper fundamental moral background, we will finally wind up with a totalitarian government which does not believe in rights for anybody except the state.”

HK_Vol

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Re: Electricity Update Pt 5
« Reply #63 on: September 21, 2018, 07:04:17 PM »
Anthracite costs 2 to 3 times more than other coal due to its purity.
But the promise for anthracite coal going forward is its Rare Earth Elements....


http://www.foxnews.com/opinion/2018/01/10/is-coal-new-gold-pennsylvania-senate-candidate-thinks-so.html

SNIP:
“There’s coal in them thar hills.” If that sounds like a confused reference to the 1849 California gold rush, think again. Long-ignored coal deposits in eastern Pennsylvania have become a key part of President Trump’s pledge to revitalize American mining and to once again produce critical materials needed for our national defense.

Trump’s Department of Energy is working with Rep. Lou Barletta, a Republican representing the district where coal was once king. Barletta, who’s running for the U.S. Senate this year, is leading a new push to extract and process so-called rare earth elements (REEs), a collection of 17 metals and minerals essential to building jet engines, rocket launchers, GPS systems, high-power magnets, I-phones, and just about any other device that’s smarter than its user.

America was once the undisputed leader in supplying REEs to the world. During the past 30 years, that role was intentionally ceded to China, which now produces more than 90 percent of the worldwide supply of critical materials – and can cut off that supply at will.

DunkingDan

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Re: Electricity Update Pt 5
« Reply #64 on: September 21, 2018, 07:24:04 PM »
Anthracite costs 2 to 3 times more than other coal due to its purity.
But the promise for anthracite coal going forward is its Rare Earth Elements....

That is the 3rd mine reopening here I know of.
Yep it is a very high grade coal 
Lots of people around here still burn coal for heat. Coal stoves are a high value item as well, even the old ones.

There is talk of new fossil plants in the region  
President Harry S. Truman said: “The fundamental basis of this nation’s laws was given to Moses on the Mount.  The fundamental basis of our Bill of Rights comes from the teachings…  If we don't have the proper fundamental moral background, we will finally wind up with a totalitarian government which does not believe in rights for anybody except the state.”

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Re: Electricity Update Pt 5
« Reply #65 on: September 21, 2018, 07:29:16 PM »
Coke and its need in steel for high temperatures makes it basically the only choice.
Which is why it trades at a much higher price than "brown coal" in Wyoming, etc.
Anthracite has a more promising future than coal in general.

DunkingDan

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Re: Electricity Update Pt 5
« Reply #66 on: September 21, 2018, 07:40:34 PM »
Coke and its need in steel for high temperatures makes it basically the only choice.
Which is why it trades at a much higher price than "brown coal" in Wyoming, etc.
Anthracite has a more promising future than coal in general.
Coal will play a major role in an intelligent energy policy as it can supply all our energy needs for over 500 years

As a note other mines in other states may be reopening. We need the energy and the funds coal mines produces to clean up some environmental disaster sites
« Last Edit: September 21, 2018, 07:43:15 PM by DunkingDan »
President Harry S. Truman said: “The fundamental basis of this nation’s laws was given to Moses on the Mount.  The fundamental basis of our Bill of Rights comes from the teachings…  If we don't have the proper fundamental moral background, we will finally wind up with a totalitarian government which does not believe in rights for anybody except the state.”

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Permit moves Leningrad II-1 closer to launch
« Reply #67 on: September 25, 2018, 04:04:19 PM »
Russian regulator Rostechnadzor has issued a permit for the commissioning of Unit 1 of the Leningrad Phase II nuclear power plant in northwest Russia. State nuclear corporation Rosatom said on 20 September the permit confirms that the unit is "fully ready for operation".

Rosenergoatom - Rosatom's nuclear power plant operating subsidiary - announced on 22 August the completion of the final commissioning test, which involved operating the VVER-1200 reactor at nominal power for 15 days. The readiness of the unit to enter commercial operation must then be confirmed by Rostechnadzor, it added.
In the 20 September statement, Alexander Rudnik, chief engineer at the Leningrad plant, said the regulator had inspected several thousand pieces of equipment involved in the power distribution system, as well as the buildings and premises in which the unit is located.
"The results of the inspection showed that the installation and commissioning of electrical equipment had been carried out in full and to a high standard," Rudnik said.
Tests carried out at the pilot industrial operation stage, including the final 15 days of testing of the power unit at the nominal power level, had confirmed the stable and reliable operation of the electrical equipment, its compliance with the established technical requirements and design characteristics, he said.
"This means that we will be able to fulfill our main task, which is to provide the region with such an important source of electric power, safely and without interruption," he added.
Having received the permit, the operator will prepare the main and auxiliary equipment for commissioning of the unit. On completion of this work, the operator will then apply to the regulator to put the unit into commercial operation.
The existing Leningrad plant site has four operating RBMK-1000 units, while Leningrad-II will have four VVER-1200 units.
Leningrad II-1 is scheduled to enter commercial operation before the end of this year, becoming the second VVER-1200 reactor to start up, following the launch in 2016 of Novovoronezh unit 6.
   
Researched and written by World Nuclear News
President Harry S. Truman said: “The fundamental basis of this nation’s laws was given to Moses on the Mount.  The fundamental basis of our Bill of Rights comes from the teachings…  If we don't have the proper fundamental moral background, we will finally wind up with a totalitarian government which does not believe in rights for anybody except the state.”

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Re: Electricity Update Pt 5
« Reply #68 on: September 26, 2018, 12:11:08 AM »

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Re: Electricity Update Pt 5
« Reply #69 on: September 26, 2018, 12:14:51 AM »
https://www.popularmechanics.com/science/energy/a23341093/oyster-creek-nuclear-power-plant-shut-down/


America's Oldest Nuclear Plant Is Shutting Down
This closure is just one more indicator of the United States' suffering nuclear industry.

The oldest nuclear plant in the United States has now officially closed a month ahead of schedule. The Oyster Creek Generating Station was shut down on Monday, bringing an end to nearly 50 years of operation.

Oyster Creek first opened on December 1, 1969, on the coast of New Jersey. Over the past 49 years, the power plant has produced 636 megawatts of electricity and powered 600,000 homes. According to managing company Exelon Generation, the clean energy produced by the facility is the equivalent of taking around 31 million cars off the road.

Nuclear plants like Oyster Creek are excellent at reducing carbon emissions that would otherwise be produced by coal or natural gas plants, but like Oyster Creek, many other nuclear plants are closing all over the country. They’re not required to close; Oyster Creek is certified to operate through at least 2029. But a mix of high operating and maintenance costs coupled with low electricity prices have made nuclear plants like Oyster Creek simply unprofitable.

Six nuclear plants in the United States have closed in the last five years, and a dozen more are scheduled to close in the next decade. Additional nuclear plants aren’t being built to replace them, either. Nuclear plants have high construction costs that make them impractical for all but the largest electricity grids.

This is bad news for the nuclear industry, but it’s also bad news for the environment. These closed nuclear plants are overwhelmingly replaced by natural gas plants, and last year research found that closing these plants could set the country’s clean energy goals back a full decade. Unfortunately, with the closing of Oyster Creek and many other plants, it’s not likely we’ll ever see a resurgence of American nuclear power anytime soon.

 

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