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Topic: Electricity Update Pt 5

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DunkingDan

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EDF and GE sign strategic deal for six EPRs in India
« Reply #28 on: June 27, 2018, 06:26:34 PM »
GE and EDF have signed a strategic cooperation agreement for the planned construction of six EPR reactors at the Jaitapur site in Maharashtra, India. The document was announced by Xavier Ursat, senior executive vice president of EDF in charge of new nuclear projects and engineering, and Andreas Lusch, president and CEO of GE's Steam Power business.
In a joint statement, the companies said this was an important step in implementing the Industrial Way Forward Agreement which was signed with NPCIL, the Indian owner and operator of the future nuclear power plant currently under discussion, on 10 March.
GE Power will design the conventional island for the Jaitapur nuclear plant and supply its main components, as well as provide operational support services and a training programme to respond to the requirements of NPCIL. EDF will be responsible for engineering integration covering the entire project - the nuclear island, conventional island and auxiliary systems - and will provide all the requisite input data.
Ursat said this strategic agreement marks the beginning of a new phase in the implementation of the world's biggest nuclear project at Jaitapur.
"This long-term agreement with GE, underpinned by a synergy of combined skills and the convergence of our long-term strategies in India, is yet another promising brick supporting the future of this project which is essential for the future of India’s energy mix and for EDF," he said.
Lusch added the agreement represents 60 years of nuclear partnership between the two companies and that GE Power had a "long history of helping India produce power".
GE Power is also the main supplier of conventional-island components for a number of French power plants, including Flamanville-3, as well as Hinkley Point C in the UK.
   
Researched and written
by World Nuclear News
President Harry S. Truman said: “The fundamental basis of this nation’s laws was given to Moses on the Mount.  The fundamental basis of our Bill of Rights comes from the teachings…  If we don't have the proper fundamental moral background, we will finally wind up with a totalitarian government which does not believe in rights for anybody except the state.”

HK_Vol

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Re: Electricity Update Pt 5
« Reply #29 on: June 28, 2018, 01:41:38 AM »
While electricity consumption tends to be lower in the spring and fall as temperatures are moderate, some of the output numbers by renewables are still impressive.  All things being equal, utilities would prefer to use renewable electricity that is already installed for the simple fact that there are no fuel costs involved.

So some of the numbers that we have seen of late tells us how fast and dramatically renewables are having an impact.  

For example, for the month of April, these were the leading states for wind as a percentage of total electricity produced:

Kansas       53.8%
Oklahoma 42.1%
Iowa 39.9%

And for solar energy, the leaders (unsurprisingly) were in the sunny Southwest, along with Hawaii and in New England, where renewable mandates are quite high:

California        24.2%
Massachusetts 18.2%
Nevada 17.0%
Vermont        14.7%
Hawaii 13.8%

Combined, the states that produced the most renewable power were:

Kansas 53.8%
Oklahoma        42.2%
Iowa        39.9%
California        34.2%
Vermont        33.2%
New Mexico 31.9%

Interestingly, New Mexico has the best balance, as they are not listed in the top five in either wind or solar, but have substantial production of both.  As the wind tends to blow harder at night, and obviously the sun shines during the day, their cycles are less severe than those relying on just one of the two.

And when you then add in Hydro, the numbers are even more impressive for some areas.  Given that Hydro is a big contributor in both Washington (77.1%) and Oregon (68.6%), the entire West Coast (California, Oregon and Washington) generated 69.4% of their electricity from renewable sources in the month of April.  Other states with impressive renewable production include Vermont at 93.2% and Idaho at 87% and South Dakota at 79.1%.  Little need for coal, nuclear or natural gas in these places!  In fact, ten states produced over 40% of their electricity from renewables in April and accounted for 20.8% of all electricity nationwide.


« Last Edit: June 28, 2018, 01:43:12 AM by HK_Vol »

HK_Vol

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Re: Electricity Update Pt 5
« Reply #30 on: June 28, 2018, 01:45:08 AM »
Coal was only 29.3% of electricity production over the past 12 months. (48.3% in 2008).
And given the retirements indicated on the map below for the coming 12 months, that number will drop yet again.



DunkingDan

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TOP 11 PROBLEMS PLAGUING SOLAR AND WIND POWER
« Reply #31 on: July 03, 2018, 07:04:19 PM »
1: Power Storage Is Incredibly Expensive On A Large Scale 
It is currently impossible to economically store power for times when the sun isn’t shining and the wind isn’t blowing. Purchasing enough batteries to provide just three days of storage for an average American household costs about $15,000, and those batteries only last for about five years and are very difficult to recycle.
This is true for home power storage as well, even with the latest batteries. A Tesla power-wall capable of powering a home costs $7,340 to buy. A conservative analysis estimates that a power-wall can save its owner a maximum of $1.06 a day. Such a system would take approximately 25 years to pay for itself, according to the same analysis.
One of the world’s largest and most powerful batteries, located in Fairbanks, Ala., weighs 1,300-metric tons and is larger than a football field. It can only provide enough electricity for about 12,000 residents, or 38 percent of Fairbanks’ population, for seven minutes. That’s useful for short outages, which happen a lot in Alaska, but isn’t effective enough to act as a reserve for solar and wind.
The best way we have of “storing” power is pumping water up a hill, which actually accounts for 99 percent of all global energy storage.
2: The U.S. Power Grid Is Older, And Has Trouble Handling Solar And Wind
“Our power grid works well today. Some complain, but blackouts are rare and large-scale blackout are really rare. The power grid was set up for the [electrical] generation we have. Building a lot of new wind and solar requires much greater expenditure on the grid,” Vice President for Policy of the Institute for Energy Research Daniel Simmons told The Daily Caller News Foundation.
According to the Department of Energy, 70 percent of the transmission lines and power transformers in the country are at least 25 years old.
In order for the power grid to function, demand for energy must exactly match supply. Power demand is relatively predictable and conventional power plans, like nuclear plants and natural gas, can adjust output accordingly. Solar and wind power, however, cannot easily adjust output. They also provide power unpredictably relative to conventional power sources.
On an especially cloudy or windless day, the electrical grid can’t supply enough power from solar or wind alone. Wind and solar also run the risk of producing too much power which can overload and fry the power grid. This is why electrical companies will occasionally pay consumers to take electricity.
3: Rebuilding The Power Grid To Handle Solar And Wind Is Absurdly Expensive
The three power grids that supply the United States with energy are massive and expensive pieces of infrastructure. The power grids are valued at trillions of dollars and can’t be replaced in a timely manner. It takes more than a year to manufacture a new transformer, and transformers aren’t interchangeable, as each one must be individually built specifically for its location. At a time when the U.S. government is more than $18 trillion in debt, building power grids that can handle solar and wind may not be feasible.
Merely building a 3,000-mile network of transmission lines capable of moving power from wind-rich West Texas to market in East Texas proved to be a $6.8 billion effort that began in 2008 and still isn’t entirely finished. Building the infrastructure to move large amounts of solar or wind power from the best places to generate it to the places where power is needed would be incredibly expensive and could cost many times the price of generating the power.
4: Solar and Wind Don’t Provide Power At Useful Times
“Solar is better than wind for providing electricity when electricity is used,” says Simmons. “But during much of the year in, for example, peak electricity demand comes after dark. For example, [on December 17] in California peak electricity demand was at 6pm. But peak solar was at 12:36 and by 6pm, solar production was a zero.”
Power demand is relatively predictable. The output of a solar or wind power plant is quite variable over time and generally doesn’t coincide with the times when power is most needed. Peak power demand also occurs in the evenings, when solar power is going offline. Adding power plants which only provide power at intermittent and unpredictable times makes the power grid more fragile.
5: Solar And Wind Can’t Keep the Lights On By Themselves
Solar and wind power systems require conventional backups to provide power when they cannot. Since the output of solar and wind plants cannot be predicted with high accuracy by forecasts, grid operators have to keep excess reserve running just in case.
But natural gas, coal-fired, or nuclear plants are not simple machines. They can require days to fully turn on from a dead stop. This means that solar and wind power require conventional sources in “stand-by” mode, which means they’re still generating electricity.
Despite this, environmental groups like The Sierra Club still call for “100 percent” solar and wind power.
6: The Best Places For Solar And Wind Are Usually Far Away From Consumers
The places with the highest potential for generating solar or wind power are typically relatively far away from the people who will consume power, according to the Department of Energy. The government agency even maintains maps of how unfeasible long-range transmission can become.
The vast majority of people who use power do not live in deserts or consistently windy areas. The kind of high voltage power lines needed to transport even relatively small amounts of power cost $1.9 to 3.1 million per mile built. Additionally, the kind of “smarter” power systems which can be adjusted to varying energy production created by wind and solar power can cost up to 50 percent more.
7: Solar And Wind Are A Very Small Percent Of The Power Grid Despite Years of Subsidies
“The first 8 months of 2015 wind and solar combined to produce 2.3% of the energy the U.S. consumed. Also wind production is down this year compared to last year,” says Simmons.
Solar and wind have been heavily subsidized since at least the 1970s. In 2010, wind power alone received $5 billion in subsidies, swamping the $654 million oil and gas received in subsides. One in four wind suppliers have gone out of business in the past two years.
In 2014, solar and wind power accounted for only 0.4 and 4.4 percent of electricitygenerated in the United States, respectively, according to the Energy Information Administration. The total amount of energy created by solar and wind is relatively small even though both systems are heavily subsidized.
8: The Solar And Wind “Low-Hanging Fruit” Have Already Been Taken
The locations where solar and wind power make the most economic sense generally already have a solar or wind power system. Since solar and wind power are only effective in a limited number of locations, “green” power sources are difficult to expand and are simply not practical in some areas.
9: Natural Gas Prices Are Very Low In The United States
Natural gas prices are currently incredibly low in the United States, making it much more difficult for solar and wind power to become cost competitive. Natural gas is already passing coal power as the most used source of electricity. Additionally, natural gas is quite environmentally friendly.
The Department of Energy agrees with research organization Berkeley Earth that “the transition from coal to natural gas for electricity generation has probably been the single largest contributor to the … largely unexpected decline in US CO2 emissions.”
10: Nuclear Energy Has Enormous Potential
The United States just approved its first new nuclear reactor in 20 yearsNew nuclear reactor designs are much safer and emit less radiation than the coal plants they replace. Nuclear plants take up far less space than wind or solar and do not emit any carbon dioxide.
Recent breakthroughs in fusion could also potentially restart the atomic age when nuclear progress was lauded as a pinnacle of human achievement. Operational fusion power will put most other forms of electricity generation permanently out of business and could occur very soon. Fusion power could easily be “too cheap to meter,” meaning that the cost of generating new power would be below the cost of determining how much power an individual was using, effectively making electricity generation nearly free.
11: Encouraging Wind And Solar Creates Incentives For Massive Corruption
Attempts by governments to encourage solar and wind power have created incentives for corruption even environmentalists acknowledge. The recent Volkswagen scandal illustrates that regulatory attempts to force a specific technology, in this case the adoption of cleaner diesel engines, create incentives that lead to sophisticated cheating by companies. The main incentive of the regulatory agencies is to make rules while avoiding bad publicity, not to actually solve the problem.
The push to encourage “green” systems has already led to serious corruption, such as the Solyndra scandal. Such corruption “crowds out” investment dollars that could be better spent on more workable solutions.
President Harry S. Truman said: “The fundamental basis of this nation’s laws was given to Moses on the Mount.  The fundamental basis of our Bill of Rights comes from the teachings…  If we don't have the proper fundamental moral background, we will finally wind up with a totalitarian government which does not believe in rights for anybody except the state.”

HK_Vol

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Re: Electricity Update Pt 5
« Reply #32 on: July 04, 2018, 09:50:01 AM »
Only 2.8% in the first 8 months of 2015?
Where is that data from?  Certainly not the EIA.

First Quarter 2018:
Wind + Solar = 9% of all electricity production (was 8.1% in 2017, 4.5% five years ago and a mere 1.3% a decade ago).

Battery costs are down over 80% in the past 9 years.
So what made no sense a decade ago can be quite feasible today.

Are utilities buying batteries because they are dumb and are ignoring economics?
I wouldn't think so....


https://www.utilitydive.com/news/pge-to-replace-3-gas-plants-with-worlds-biggest-battery-projects/526991/

PG&E to replace 3 gas plants with world's biggest battery projects

SNIP:
PG&E selected offers of three energy storage projects from third-party owners, totaling 385.5 MW, 1,540 MWh, and one 182.5 MW, 730 MWh project the utility would own.

The energy storage projects are being built to avoid the need to keep three Calpine gas-fired plants running as RMR resources and to shore up congestion issues in the region.

"Storage at this scale is likely now cheaper than the total cost to run the gas plants," Alex Eller, senior energy research analyst at Navigant, told Utility Dive via email.

The race for the largest lithium-ion battery system is progressing at a fast clip in Australia, where Tesla's 100 MW battery reduced grid service costs 90%. Several large energy storage projects are in the pipeline there, including Queensland's SolarQ, which is planning to pair a 350 MW solar facility with a battery system of up to 4,000 MWh.



https://arstechnica.com/information-technology/2018/07/california-utility-looks-to-add-gigawatt-hours-of-battery-storage-before-2020/

SNIP:
Late last week, California utility Pacific Gas and Electric (PG&E) asked the state to approve four lithium-ion battery storage projects. Three of which would be owned and operated by a third party, and one, built by Tesla, would be owned and operated by PG&E itself.

One of the projects—spearheaded by energy company Vistra (which recently merged with Dynegy)—could become the world's first grid-scale, lithium-ion battery installations to store more than a gigawatt-hour of energy.

Tesla's project is also huge. It would deliver 730MWh of energy, but Tesla's contract with PG&E suggests the utility could opt to increase the size of the battery to 1.1GWh.

The Tesla installation is expected to discharge 182.5MW for 4 hours (hence, the 730MWh number). But the contract could be bumped up to a discharge duration of 6 hours, which would result in just under 1.1 GWh of storage owned by PG&E. For comparison, last year Tesla completed the largest lithium-ion battery installation in the world in South Australia. That battery system clocked in at 100MW/129MWh of storage.

HK_Vol

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Re: Electricity Update Pt 5
« Reply #33 on: July 04, 2018, 09:55:30 AM »
Can nuclear / natural gas / coal match 3.2¢/kWh?

https://pv-magazine-usa.com/2018/06/07/worlds-largest-lithium-ion-battery-1-gwh-solarpower-xcel-energy-colorado-wind-power/


World’s largest li-ion battery and 707 MW of solar power in Colorado proposal

SNIP:
Xcel Energy’s 120-day report to Colorado regulators includes an additional 1.1 GW of wind at 1.1-1.8¢/kWh. Solar power bids have come in at 2.2-2.7¢/kWh, and solar+storage at 3.0-3.2¢/kWh.

Back in the quaint days of late 2017, the world was awoke by a batch of bids of momentous size – and shockingly low pricing – in a solicitation by Xcel Energy. In fact, the median bid on 16 GW of solar+storage came in at only 3.6¢ per kilowatt-hour (kWh). This price was only 0.65¢/kWh more than the 30 GW of solar-only bids.

For perspective’s purpose – according to the EIA, in 2016 either operations or maintenance for ‘fossil steam’ electricity sources were above 5¢/kWh for existing facilities across the USA. This is before fuel costs estimated at an average of 2.5¢/kWh.

The solar power bids ranged from 2.3-2.7¢/kWh, while solar plus storage ranged from 3.0-3.2¢/kWh. While it makes for an imperfect comparison as solar project costs vary, the solar vs solar+storage delta is 0.5-0.8¢/kWh.

Even more eye popping was the wind power pricing that ranged from 1.1-1.8¢/kWh.

And this is coming at a bargain for utility customers. When these bids came out back in January, CarbonTrack.org noted that at 3.6¢/kWh for solar+storage 74% of coal would be would priced higher. With the new pricing of the solar+storage turning out to be 3.0-3.2¢/kWh – 100% of coal powered generation is now more expensive.

Back in 2015 Jim Robo, the CEO of NextEra Energy, said, “Post-2020, there may never be another peaker built in the United States — very likely you’ll be just be building energy storage instead.”

DunkingDan

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Re: Electricity Update Pt 5
« Reply #34 on: July 04, 2018, 10:08:06 AM »

The coal plants that are retiring (due to age and the cost t refurbish-basically rebuild) were in the works long before the PC crowd took over parts of the industry and are making profits over the long term stability and health of the grid.
Likewise nothing green about what takes square miles to produce what only a couple acres can not to mention the hidden non environmental friendly cost of material in the components, the making of the components and the disposal of them. Hence many countries are going back to nuclear and research is heating up for nukes and breeders
President Harry S. Truman said: “The fundamental basis of this nation’s laws was given to Moses on the Mount.  The fundamental basis of our Bill of Rights comes from the teachings…  If we don't have the proper fundamental moral background, we will finally wind up with a totalitarian government which does not believe in rights for anybody except the state.”

HK_Vol

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Re: Electricity Update Pt 5
« Reply #35 on: July 04, 2018, 10:13:34 AM »
As for solar - it takes up zero net new space if located on top of existing warehouses, offices, etc.
A 100,000 sq. ft. warehouse could have panels that would produce 1 megawatt of power on top of an existing site.  No new net space needed.

DunkingDan

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Re: Electricity Update Pt 5
« Reply #36 on: July 04, 2018, 10:25:23 AM »
As for solar - it takes up zero net new space if located on top of existing warehouses, offices, etc.
A 100,000 sq. ft. warehouse could have panels that would produce 1 megawatt of power on top of an existing site.  No new net space needed.
~1/4 acre for one MW that only produces when the sun is out. Not very efficient and that's before we even think about all the other problems such as the space for batteries, the non talked about potential disastrous effects from the batteries, etc
As a note the problems listed in the previous post still are there even if the article is a couple years old
President Harry S. Truman said: “The fundamental basis of this nation’s laws was given to Moses on the Mount.  The fundamental basis of our Bill of Rights comes from the teachings…  If we don't have the proper fundamental moral background, we will finally wind up with a totalitarian government which does not believe in rights for anybody except the state.”

HK_Vol

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Re: Electricity Update Pt 5
« Reply #37 on: July 04, 2018, 02:48:29 PM »

DunkingDan

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Re: Electricity Update Pt 5
« Reply #38 on: July 04, 2018, 07:49:20 PM »

Which has zero to do with their environmental problems, the potential destructive force if attacked by terrorist, the large amount of land space, the  reliance on materials from regions that could shut off the supply, the problems with the disposal, the reliance on unreliable sources to charge, the inability to meet power surges above a certain limit, etc.
While a good niche source we are damned fools if we continue down the yellow brick road. But PC runs amok in the power industry as well.
President Harry S. Truman said: “The fundamental basis of this nation’s laws was given to Moses on the Mount.  The fundamental basis of our Bill of Rights comes from the teachings…  If we don't have the proper fundamental moral background, we will finally wind up with a totalitarian government which does not believe in rights for anybody except the state.”

DunkingDan

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ROSATOM plans to expand nuclear construction abroad
« Reply #39 on: July 04, 2018, 07:50:39 PM »
GORKY, July 3. ROSATOM plans shortly to conclude contracts with new countries for construction of NPPs abroad. At the present time, ROSATOM has 67% of the world nuclear plant construction market, as head of the state-owned corporation Alexei Likhachev reported to Russia’s Prime Minister Dmitry Medvedev. 

He said that at the present time the orders portfolio exceeded US $133 billion. “At the present day, we have 35 power units as signed contracts and intergovernmental agreements; this is 67% of the world market of [NPP] construction abroad,” Likhachev noted. He specified that “the agreement concerning development of two large power units in Uzbekistan is at the final stage.” “We hope that a lot of other countries will become our partners and, as they say, nuclear newcomers,” the ROSATOM head emphasized. 
In 2017, ROSATOM fulfilled the state defense order 100% and set an electricity generation record, Likhachev added. 

“All items under the governmental program [nuclear power development] have been fulfilled: 100% of the state defense order, 100% of the integral efficiency performance of the governmental program, and 104% of fulfillment of main business indicators of the governmental program,” he said. 

According to Likhachev, “last year, a record was set: nearly 203 billion kWh were generated; this was the largest figure over the history of existence of new Russia.” He believes that “the record of the Soviet Union – 213 billion kWh – will be achieved shortly.”
http://www.rosatom.ru/en/press-centre/news/rosatom-plans-to-expand-nuclear-construction-abroad-/

President Harry S. Truman said: “The fundamental basis of this nation’s laws was given to Moses on the Mount.  The fundamental basis of our Bill of Rights comes from the teachings…  If we don't have the proper fundamental moral background, we will finally wind up with a totalitarian government which does not believe in rights for anybody except the state.”

DunkingDan

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 license

Bangladesh Atomic Energy Regulatory Authority (BAERA) granted a license to Bangladesh Atomic Energy Commission (BAEC) for the construction of Unit 2 of the Rooppur Nuclear Power Plant (RNPP). The license was formally handed over at a ceremony held this afternoon at the Pan Pacific Sonargaon Hotel in Dhaka.
“ASE Group of Companies (an engineering division of Russia’s Rosatom State Atomic Energy Corporation) as the General Contractor performs all obligations related to the construction of the RNPP. Currently, the construction of Unit 1 is under way, and we are taking necessary preparation for pouring of the first concrete into the slab of reactor compartment of Unit 2”, said Valery Limarenko, President of the ASE Group of Companies.
Construction of RNPP Unit 1 started in November, 2017. Currently the works on the construction of the walls and reinforcement of the reactor building and the foundation slab of the auxiliary reactor building are being performed, while soil stabilization works for the evaporative cooling tower have already been commenced.

The selected design for the Rooppur Nuclear Power Plant is based on VVER-1200 reactors, having its prototype at the Novovoronezh Nuclear Power Plant-2 of Russia.
President Harry S. Truman said: “The fundamental basis of this nation’s laws was given to Moses on the Mount.  The fundamental basis of our Bill of Rights comes from the teachings…  If we don't have the proper fundamental moral background, we will finally wind up with a totalitarian government which does not believe in rights for anybody except the state.”

DunkingDan

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ARC-100 Reactor
« Reply #41 on: July 11, 2018, 05:59:14 PM »
The Reactor

With worldwide demand for electrical power expected to double over the next 25 years, the world faces the daunting challenge of providing affordable electricity to an expanding population without exacerbating climate change or fostering nuclear proliferation. Advanced Reactor Concepts, L.L.C. (ARC) will address this challenge. ARC is developing an exportable, factory-produced, 100 MWe nuclear reactor with fixed fuel costs for 20+ years.
The ARC-100 design creates a "walk away" passive safety system that insures the reactor will never melt down even in a disaster that causes a complete loss of power to the plant site. In addition, it can be fueled with the nuclear waste produced by traditional reactors, and its 20 year refueling cycle offers new levels of proliferation resistance. It provides a new model for nuclear power that is based on factory fabrication of modular components that can be shipped for rapid site assembly, thereby promoting the prompt start of a revenue stream. 
The reactor's basic technology was proven through the successful 30 year operation of the EBR-II prototype (described below) .  ARC has made significant proprietary advances to the original EBR-II design in order to create the ARC-100.
 
Download the ARC-100 Brochure

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5 advantages

  • Small Size
     Small enough that its modularized components can be shipped and installed at the site using regular commercial equipment, such as barges, rail, trucks, and construction cranes.
      
  • Sodium as Coolant
     The use of sodium instead of water as the heat transfer agent in the reactor allows the reactor to operate at ambient pressure.  Its containment vessel is a double walled stainless steel tank rather than a 12 inch thick forged steel containment vessel required for traditional light water reactors.
      
  • Passive Safety
     Effectively "walk away" fail safe and protection of the reactor from a melt down does not depend on extra pumps, operator intervention or any external system in the event a disaster destroys all electric power to the plant site.
      
  • Re-use of Nuclear Waste
     The ARC-100 can be used to recycle traditional nuclear waste and generate energy, burn or transform plutonium that could be used for weapons and eliminate the need to bury or store large quantities of nuclear waste.
      
  • Twenty Year Refueling Cycle
     The proprietary reactor core of the ARC reactor is designed to operate for 20+ years without refueling.

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EBR-II

The protype for the ARC-100 reactor is a reactor known as the EBR-II.  The EBR-II was operated by the US government's Argonne National Laboratory in Idaho for 30 years as a very successful test and demonstration sodium-cooled fast-reactor power plant. As a complete power plant, the reliability of the system was demonstrated, and sodium operating and maintenance technology was established. As an irradiation test facility, Oxide, Metal, Carbide and Nitride fuels were developed. Oxide fuel for the FFTF and CRBRP was qualified and Metal fuel was extensively developed for EBR-II. As an operational-safety test facility, the self-protecting response of a metal-fueled reactor was demonstrated for Anticipated Transients without Scram and the benefits to safety were quantified in a PRA. The safety of operation with breached fuel was also demonstrated. As the Integral Fast Reactor (IFR) prototype, proliferation-resistant reprocessing and recycle of fuel was demonstrated and fuel containing minor actinides was fabricated and irradiated. When decommissioned, draining and reaction of the sodium to produce an acceptable form for disposal was accomplished, including passivation of residual sodium. Waste forms for geologic storage of waste from fuel reprocessing were developed and qualified. The EBR-II experience and test program has established the viability of sodium-cooled fast reactor power plants.
Download EBR-II Document
President Harry S. Truman said: “The fundamental basis of this nation’s laws was given to Moses on the Mount.  The fundamental basis of our Bill of Rights comes from the teachings…  If we don't have the proper fundamental moral background, we will finally wind up with a totalitarian government which does not believe in rights for anybody except the state.”

 

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