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Topic: Electricity Update Pt 5

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HK_Vol

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Re: Electricity Update Pt 5
« Reply #14 on: June 01, 2018, 07:16:48 PM »
TVA



DunkingDan

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Trump Orders a Lifeline for Struggling Coal and Nuclear Plants
« Reply #15 on: June 05, 2018, 01:19:39 PM »

https://www.nytimes.com/2018/06/01/climate/trump-coal-nuclear-power.html?smid=fb-nytimes&smtyp=cur
https://www.nytimes.com/2018/06/01/climate/trump-coal-nuclear-power.html?smid=fb-nytimes&smtyp=cur
President Harry S. Truman said: “The fundamental basis of this nation’s laws was given to Moses on the Mount.  The fundamental basis of our Bill of Rights comes from the teachings…  If we don't have the proper fundamental moral background, we will finally wind up with a totalitarian government which does not believe in rights for anybody except the state.”

DunkingDan

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ST40 achieves 15-million-degree target
« Reply #16 on: June 06, 2018, 06:09:48 PM »
Tokamak Energy announced today that it has achieved plasma temperatures of over 15 million degrees Celsius, hotter than the centre of the Sun. The Oxford, England-based company turned on its ST40 reactor for the first time in April 2017.
The reactor aims to produce a record-breaking plasma temperature for a privately-funded venture of 100 million degrees. This is almost seven times hotter than the centre of the Sun and the temperature necessary for controlled fusion.
The ST40 fusion reactor (Image: Tokamak Energy)
Jonathan Carling, Tokamak Energy CEO, said: "We are taking significant steps towards achieving fusion energy and doing so with the agility of a private venture, driven by the goal of achieving something that will have huge benefits worldwide.
"Reaching 15 million degrees is yet another indicator of the progress at Tokamak Energy and a further validation of our approach. Our aim is to make fusion energy a commercial reality by 2030. We view the journey as a series of engineering challenges, raising additional investment on reaching each new milestone."
The ST40 is the third machine in the company's five-stage plan to achieve "abundant, clean fusion energy", with its target of "industrial scale" energy production by 2025.
The Tokamak Energy approach is based on well-established science and is advancing rapidly, the company said. Its next target is to push on to achieve the temperatures necessary for controlled fusion on Earth.
Tokamak Energy grew out of the Culham Centre for Fusion Energy, which is also based in Oxfordshire. A key innovation, it says, is that the company combines spherical tokamaks with the latest generation of high temperature superconducting magnets.
   
Researched and written
by World Nuclear News
President Harry S. Truman said: “The fundamental basis of this nation’s laws was given to Moses on the Mount.  The fundamental basis of our Bill of Rights comes from the teachings…  If we don't have the proper fundamental moral background, we will finally wind up with a totalitarian government which does not believe in rights for anybody except the state.”

HK_Vol

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Re: Electricity Update Pt 5
« Reply #17 on: June 06, 2018, 06:13:34 PM »
Tokamak Energy announced today that it has achieved plasma temperatures of over 15 million degrees Celsius, hotter than the centre of the Sun.

What materials are they using that do not immediately melt down at those temperatures?


DunkingDan

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Re: Electricity Update Pt 5
« Reply #18 on: June 06, 2018, 06:29:10 PM »
HK the requirements section in that linked Wiki article covers the basics 

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Plasma-facing_material

I hope this is a sufficient answer.

One of the critical concerns, IMO is having an uninterrupted power supply to maintain the magnetic field.

Note the heat transfer capabilities must be maintained as well for some time
President Harry S. Truman said: “The fundamental basis of this nation’s laws was given to Moses on the Mount.  The fundamental basis of our Bill of Rights comes from the teachings…  If we don't have the proper fundamental moral background, we will finally wind up with a totalitarian government which does not believe in rights for anybody except the state.”

DunkingDan

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President Harry S. Truman said: “The fundamental basis of this nation’s laws was given to Moses on the Mount.  The fundamental basis of our Bill of Rights comes from the teachings…  If we don't have the proper fundamental moral background, we will finally wind up with a totalitarian government which does not believe in rights for anybody except the state.”

DunkingDan

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Nuclear build costs could fall by over 35% using global learnings
« Reply #20 on: June 12, 2018, 08:56:22 PM »
New nuclear plants could become competitive in Europe and North America if developers prioritize labor deployment, project governance and other drivers which have slashed costs in Asia, a new report shows.
he U.K.'s Energy Technologies Institute (ETI) recently published its report into cost drivers and cost reduction opportunities for nuclear new build projects.
Launched in October, the Nuclear Cost Drivers Project is the first evidence-based study of global nuclear construction costs. The six-month study aimed to identify why recent nuclear projects in North America and Europe have been plagued by schedule delays and cost increases. The researchers studied 33 nuclear plant units and focused on plants that were either operational or due for completion in 2018.
Led by CleanTech Catalyst (CTC) and Lucid Strategy, the study was independently-reviewed by Tim Stone, Non-executive Chairman of Nuclear Risk Insurers.
The researchers analyzed eight different cost drivers and concluded that the supply chain, labor, project governance and project development were drivers of “high importance” while construction execution, political and regulatory context, equipment and materials, and vendor plant design, were of “medium importance.”
For all eight cost drivers, European and North American projects had the lowest average performance rating and these projects could significantly learn from faster and lower cost projects in Asia, the study said. The average levelized cost of energy (LCOE) for large Gen III/III+ reactors in Europe and North America was $10,387/kW or $132/MWh, it said.
By improving their performance rating against the eight key cost drivers, European and North American projects could reduce costs by over 35%, the report said.
Even without new technology, nuclear plants can become “a cost-competitive part of the solution to global warming if best in class planning and construction practices are followed,” Kirsty Gogan, Director of CTC, told Nuclear Energy Insider.
            Capital costs for historical and ongoing nuclear projects in database
                                                            (Click image to enlarge)

Source: The ETI Nuclear Cost Drivers Project, Summary Report (April 2018).
The study comes as the UK looks to accelerate cost reductions and apply learnings from EDF’s ongoing Hinkley Point C project to other projects planned at Wylfa, Sizewell and other locations in the coming years.
Global learnings
ETI’s report compared plants on a like-for-like basis by assuming a capacity factor of 95% and applying a common interest rate of 7%, standardized fuel costs, a depreciation period of 60 years and the same interest rate during operations and construction phases.
Cost drivers were defined as:
• Increasing or decreasing the cost of the project.
 • Representing one of the processes critical to plant completion or “realization.”
 • Having factual and/or measurable indicators.
 • Associated with at least one of the principal actors in plant completion or “realization.”
 • Collectively explaining most of the cost variation among plants.

Recent construction challenges in Europe and North America are only partially attributed to local "context" factors, such as the impact of decades of industry activity on supply chain resources, the report said.
According to the report, developers in China, South Korea and Japan:
• Had more experience in delivering large, complex construction projects.
 • Benefitted from significantly less expensive and more productive labour.
 • Their regulators are paid by the government rather than the reactor vendor or project developer.
 • While the regulator is sufficiently independent, it is aligned on project completion.
 • China benefits from the ability of state-run enterprises to make large decisions quickly once the political direction has been set.
 • All three countries benefit from cultures where litigious responses to problems are extremely rare for on-site issues.

While these contextual factors played a role, none of them would prevent an effective cost reduction program from being implemented in new build markets such as the UK, the report found.
Case studies
Six reactor case studies included in the report highlight the wide range of learnings and cost reductions possible for future projects.
1) Sizewell B and Nuclear Electric’s proposal to build Sizewell C: the factors that make a project expensive (e.g. first of a kind build FOAK, new supply chain, inexperience labour, etc.) can all be improved for subsequent units. The Sizewell case study clearly demonstrates how multiples can cut costs by reusing the design primary contractors and building multiple units simultaneously.
              Cost reductions at Nuclear Electric's proposed Sizewell C plant
                                                          (Click image to enlarge)


Source: The ETI Nuclear Cost Drivers Project, Summary Report (April 2018).

2) UAE’s Barakah 1-4 (partially complete): multi-unit efficiencies included shared site infrastructure, one site mobilization effort, bulk purchasing, plus the same contracts and overheads.
3) U.S.’ Vogtle 3&4 (under construction): costs can quickly escalate when cost drivers are poorly managed or reflect contextual factors, such as the lack of a readied supply chain or expensive regulator billing rates.
4) Rolls-Royce SMR (design in commercial development): many of the risk and cost centres of conventional nuclear can be ‘designed out’ during the plant design phase.
5) Japan Atomic Energy Agency’s High Temperature Engineering Test Reactor: shows the potential viability of a low-cost advanced nuclear concept.
6) Generic Molten Salt Reactor (advanced designs in commercial development): the inherent benefits of using molten salt as the primary coolant (or combination of fuel and coolant) enables several transformative cost reduction opportunities, including lower materials requirements and modular build savings.
UK targets
In December, the UK Nuclear Industry Council (NIC) pledged to reduce nuclear new build costs by 30% by 2030, as part of a Nuclear Sector Deal within the UK government's new Industrial Strategy.
To meet this aim, industry and government must work together to maximize economies of scale and series, adopt advanced construction technologies to increase productivity, streamline development and regulation, and lower the cost of capital, the NIC said in a report.
ETI's report stresses that fleet deployment by itself does not necessarily guarantee cost reduction unless developers implement “a well-designed and intentional program that incorporates multiple cost reduction opportunities by all principal actors."
In total, the report identified 35 cost reduction opportunities. The drivers considered the most important in the UK were:
• Complete plant design prior to starting construction.
 • Follow contracting best practices.
 • Project owner should develop multiple units at a single site.
 • Innovate new methods for developing alignment with labor around nuclear projects.
 • Government support should be contingent on systematic application of best practices and cost reduction measures.
 • Design a UK program to maximize and incentivize learning, potentially led by a newly-created entity.
 • Government must play a role in supporting financing process.
 • Transform regulatory interaction to focus on cost-effective safety.

Cost of financing is another key driver of plant costs. The UK nuclear industry has recommended the government evaluates a range of financing models to reduce the cost of capital, including sharing the early stage project risk between the government and the developer. For the Hinkley point C project, developer EDF and its Chinese partners are bearing all construction risks. As a result, the government-guaranteed contract for difference (CfD) power price for the project was 92.50 pounds per MWh (108.4 euros/MWh, $126.8/MWh), considered by many to be uncompetitive given falling renewable energy costs.
In its Nuclear Sector Deal report, the NIC said a 1% reduction in the cost of capital for a new nuclear project could lead to a 10% reduction in the CfD price.
                 
The evaluation of new financing models should “take into account the changing risk profile across the life time of a project and look at opportunities for lower cost financing of early stage risks and subsequent refinancing, within the current legislative framework," the NIC said.
https://analysis.nuclearenergyinsider.com/nuclear-build-costs-could-fall-over-35-using-global-learnings
President Harry S. Truman said: “The fundamental basis of this nation’s laws was given to Moses on the Mount.  The fundamental basis of our Bill of Rights comes from the teachings…  If we don't have the proper fundamental moral background, we will finally wind up with a totalitarian government which does not believe in rights for anybody except the state.”

HK_Vol

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Re: Electricity Update Pt 5
« Reply #21 on: June 14, 2018, 05:59:34 AM »

https://www.pv-magazine.com/2018/06/07/worlds-largest-li-ion-battery-and-707-mw-of-solar-power-in-colorado-proposal/

World’s largest li-ion battery and 707 MW of solar power in Colorado proposal
Xcel Energy’s 120-day report to Colorado regulators includes an additional 1.1 GW of wind at 1.1-1.8¢/kWh. Solar power bids have come in at 2.2-2.7¢/kWh, and solar+storage at 3.0-3.2¢/kWh.

SNIP:
The solar power bids ranged from 2.3-2.7¢/kWh, while solar plus storage ranged from 3.0-3.2¢/kWh. While it makes for an imperfect comparison as solar project costs vary, the solar vs solar+storage delta is 0.5-0.8¢/kWh.

Even more eye popping was the wind power pricing that ranged from 1.1-1.8¢/kWh.

If the Preferred CEPP plan is implemented, it would see the utility move from 28% renewables as of 2017, to 53% by 2026. The most important piece of all of this are deep emissions reductions. By 2026 generation serving Xcel’s Colorado customers would emit nearly 60% less CO2 and 90% less SO2 and NOX, compared to 2005 levels.

And this is coming at a bargain for these customers. When these bids came out back in January, CarbonTrack.org noted that at 3.6¢/kWh for solar+storage 74% of coal would be would priced higher. With the new pricing of the solar+storage turning out to be 3.0-3.2¢/kWh – 100% of coal powered generation is now more expensive.








HK_Vol

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Re: Electricity Update Pt 5
« Reply #22 on: June 14, 2018, 06:03:25 AM »
So much for building new "peaker plants...


https://reneweconomy.com.au/the-stunning-numbers-behind-success-of-tesla-big-battery-63917/

SNIP:
The Tesla big battery in South Australia has already taken a 55 per cent share in the state’s frequency and ancillary services market, and lowered prices in that market by 90 per cent, new data has shown.

“So, I thought I’d give you a few numbers from the market data,” van Gendt said.

“In the first four months of operations of the Hornsdale Power Reserve (the official name of the Tesla big battery, owned and operated by Neoen), the frequency ancillary services prices went down by 90 per cent, so that’s 9-0 per cent.

“And the 100MW battery has achieved over 55 per cent of the FCAS revenues in South Australia. So it’s 2 per cent of the capacity in South Australia achieving 55 per cent of the revenues in South Australia.

“So that’s great for the first battery in the market,” he added, “but if you’ve already had 55 per cent of the FCAS that are now gone, right… and a 90 per cent drop in price, then the business case for the second battery, of course, is a bit less attractive.

“So I wish the second battery in South Australia a lot of luck!”

DunkingDan

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Natural Gas And The New Deathprint For Energy
« Reply #23 on: June 14, 2018, 06:59:56 PM »
Tuesday afternoon witnessed a horribly fatal accident in Oklahomawhen natural gas exploded at an oil and gas well outside of Quinton, killing five workers. The accident is the deadliest U.S. drilling mishap since the 2010 Deepwater Horizon explosion that killed 11 workers. 
The explosion is the latest in a series of fatal accidents at American oil and gas fieldsAccidents during oil and gas drilling claim about 100 lives a year in the United States. You’d think this would be big news. If any other energy source, like wind or solar, killed that many people, it would be front page. And if five people died at a nuclear plant, there’d be calls to close all nuclear plants immediately, accompanied by mobs with pitchforks.
So it might be a good time to review the actual deathprint of each of our energy sources.
Most people have heard of something called externalities, in this case, costs not factored into the price. The most famous is the carbon footprint of different energy sources, since it is now driving policy, tax credits and some actual costs. The largest carbon footprint belongs to coal with about 1,000 grams of CO2 released for every kWh generated, and the smallest belongs to nuclear, hydro and wind, all under 30 gCO2/kWh.



The physical footprint, or the amount of land required to produce a kWh, is also an important issue but only for renewables which are about a hundred thousand times the other sources.
But an energy’s deathprint, as it is called, is a rarely-discussed externality. The deathprint is the number of people killed per kWh produced. There is debate on the absolute numbers, but no one debates on the relative ranking from most dangerous to least. Like the carbon footprint, coal has the largest deathprint while nuclear has the smallest, even with the worst-case Chernobyl numbers. Natural Gas has the highest accident-related deaths.
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The table below estimates the mortality rate for each energy source as deaths per trillion kWhs generated over the last 40 years, plus an estimate of that source’s contribution to global energy use from the IEA. The numbers are a combination of direct deaths and epidemiological estimates, the latter being tricky at best, and are an amalgam of many sources (12, 3, 456).
Energy Source*               Mortality Rate (deaths/trillion kWh)
Coal                                         100,000    (41% global electricity)
Coal – China                           170,000   (75% China’s electricity)
Coal – U.S.                                 10,000    (32% U.S. electricity)
Oil                                               36,000    (33% of energy, 4% of electricity)
Natural Gas                                4,000    (22% global electricity)
Biofuel/Biomass                     24,000    (21% global energy/2% electricity)
Solar                                               440    (< 1% global electricity)
Wind                                               150    (2% global electricity)
Hydro                                          1,400    (16% global electricity)
Hydro – U.S.                                       5    (6% U.S. electricity)
Nuclear                                             90    (11%  global electricity)
Nuclear – U.S                                     0.1    (19%  U.S. electricity)
*global average unless otherwise noted
It is notable that in media and legislative discussions, the only time death is mentioned is for nuclear, ironic since it has the lowest deathprint of any source.
According to the World Health Organization, the Centers for Disease Control, the National Academy of Science and many health studies over the last decade (NAS 2010), the adverse impacts on health become a significant effect for fossil fuel and biofuel/biomass sources. In fact, the World Health Organization has called biomass burning a major global health issue (WHO).
At the other end of the spectrum, nuclear energy is the safest. In fact, the United Nation’s (UNSCEAR) changed the estimate of additional deaths from the Chernobyl disaster from radiation in the public, from about 4,000 to about zero. Some plant staff and emergency workers were killed, and those deaths totalled 58 people, including 9 childhood thyroid cancers. The numbers for nuclear in the table reflects the old number.
For coal, oil and biomass, it is carbon particulates resulting from burning that cause upper respiratory distress, kind of a second-hand black lung. Our lungs just don’t like burnt carbonaceous particulates, whether from coal or wood or manure or pellets or cigarettes.
The impact of fossil fuel on global health care systems has been significant, not just in deaths, but in non-lethal health effects and lost days of work.
It is important to note that using nuclear, hydro and renewables in place of coal and gas actually saves lives. These avoided deaths are in the millions for nuclear and hydro since they have generated trillions of kWhs of electricity over 60 years that would have been generated from coal and gas. Avoided deaths are in the thousands for renewables since they have yet to produce that much energy.
In the above table, the deathprint in the United States is given for coal, hydro and nuclear, three sources for which separate country data is available. Note the extreme difference between the U.S. deathprints and the global deathprints for each of these three sources.
Why are the global deathprints so much higher than the ones in the United States?
Strong regulations.
Whether it’s the Clean Air Act, the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) or the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), our energy systems are pretty safe.
Although fossil fuels could obviously do a better job.
https://www.forbes.com/sites/jamesconca/2018/01/25/natural-gas-and-the-new-deathprint-for-energy/#2c463b3c5e19
President Harry S. Truman said: “The fundamental basis of this nation’s laws was given to Moses on the Mount.  The fundamental basis of our Bill of Rights comes from the teachings…  If we don't have the proper fundamental moral background, we will finally wind up with a totalitarian government which does not believe in rights for anybody except the state.”

DunkingDan

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Russia Joins China's Race for Next-Generation Nuclear Reactors
« Reply #24 on: June 18, 2018, 03:01:14 PM »
China has agreed to pursue building next-generation nuclear reactors designed by Russia’s Rosatom Corp., the latest player seeking a boost for its new technology from China’s embrace of atomic power.



A plan to build four Russian units was among four deals signed Friday during a ceremony in Beijing attended by presidents Xi Jinping and Vladimir Putin. The agreements are worth more than 20 billion yuan ($3.1 billion) and total construction costs could exceed 100 billion yuan, according to China National Nuclear Corp., adding it’s the biggest nuclear pact ever between the two countries. China will finance the reactor construction, Rosatom Chief Executive Officer Alexey Likhachev said after the ceremony.


To read more about Putin’s visit to China, click here.


China’s nuclear industry has grown from its experience importing technology sold by foreign companies hoping to benefit from booming demand in the world’s largest energy consumer. The nation’s ambitions to build out its nuclear power industry at home, and sell its own technology abroad, is beginning to overcome cost overruns and tighter regulations.


The nation signaled in March it would end a multiyear freeze on new reactor construction this year, and a month later approved the fuel-loading of Westinghouse Electric Co.’s AP1000 in Zhejiang province’s Sanmen and French-designed EPR in Guangdong’s Taishan. That paves the way for startups within months, which would be the first successful operations globally for units of their kind.
Russian Reactors
As part of the agreements signed Friday, the countries will seek to build two Russian VVER-1200 units at the Xudabao power plant in China’s Liaoning province and two more at Tianwan in Jiangsu, according to a statement from Moscow-based Rosatom.
China already uses some of Russia’s older technology. Two VVER-1000 units at Tianwan started in 2007, and a third was connected to the grid in December, Rosatom said.
“Tianwan has been a testing ground for Russian nuclear technology,” said Snowy Yao, an analyst at China Securities International Finance Holding Co. “China looks willing to try out all the latest designs before endorsing a winner.”

More at https://www.bloomberg.com/news/articles/2018-06-08/russia-joins-china-s-race-for-next-generation-nuclear-reactors 
 

President Harry S. Truman said: “The fundamental basis of this nation’s laws was given to Moses on the Mount.  The fundamental basis of our Bill of Rights comes from the teachings…  If we don't have the proper fundamental moral background, we will finally wind up with a totalitarian government which does not believe in rights for anybody except the state.”

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Re: Electricity Update Pt 5
« Reply #25 on: June 24, 2018, 03:24:01 AM »
Wind Integration in ERCOT 

https://www.eia.gov/conference/2018/pdf/presentations/beth_garza.pdf


EIA: “Electricity Industry in Transition”
Eric Gebhardt, Chief Innovation Officer, GE Power

https://www.eia.gov/conference/2018/pdf/presentations/eric_gebhardt.pdf

SNIP:
By 2026, RENEWABLES will represent 40% of global installed generation capacity*

  • The power grid is becoming increasingly diverse
  • Energy Storage + Distributed Energy can support grid
  • Existing assets will be important facilitator of system change
  • New business models & market structures are critical 

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Re: Electricity Update Pt 5
« Reply #26 on: June 24, 2018, 03:36:39 AM »
https://www.eia.gov/conference/2018/pdf/presentations/kiran_kumaraswamy.pdf

30 MW of energy storage for San Diego Gas & Electric, California

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• 30 MW / 120 MWh
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Up to 4 x the effective resources and unique operational and siting advantages over thermal peakers

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DunkingDan

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Re: Electricity Update Pt 5
« Reply #27 on: June 24, 2018, 06:29:27 PM »

The Catch-22 of Energy&nbsp;Storage
The Catch-22 of Energy Storage


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Batteries and Energy Storage

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Batteries have a dirty secret

Energy storage is considered a green technology. But it actually increases carbon emissions.

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President Harry S. Truman said: “The fundamental basis of this nation’s laws was given to Moses on the Mount.  The fundamental basis of our Bill of Rights comes from the teachings…  If we don't have the proper fundamental moral background, we will finally wind up with a totalitarian government which does not believe in rights for anybody except the state.”

 

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