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Topic: Electricity update Pt. 10

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DunkingDan

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Re: Electricity update Pt. 10
« Reply #56 on: August 05, 2020, 07:48:05 PM »
Doesn't France have something close to a breeder reactor?
Drawing from memory, and I could be wrong, France, Britian, Japan, and Russia all built experimental ones.
President Harry S. Truman said: “The fundamental basis of this nation’s laws was given to Moses on the Mount.  The fundamental basis of our Bill of Rights comes from the teachings…  If we don't have the proper fundamental moral background, we will finally wind up with a totalitarian government which does not believe in rights for anybody except the state.”

HK_Vol

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Re: Electricity update Pt. 10
« Reply #57 on: August 05, 2020, 08:04:15 PM »
This is what I was thinking of.....

https://www.heritage.org/environment/commentary/recycling-nuclear-fuel-the-french-do-it-why-cant-oui

Recycling Nuclear Fuel: The French Do It, Why Can't Oui?


SNIP:
What if the government allowed you to burn only 25 percent of every tank of gas? Or if Washington made you pour half of every gallon of milk down the drain?

What if lawmakers forced us to bury 95 percent of our energy resources?

That is exactly what Washington does when it comes to safe, affordable and CO2-free nuclear energy. Indeed, 95 percent of the used fuel from America's 104 power reactors, which provide about 20 percent of the nation's electricity, could be recycled for future use.


The sad thing is, the United States developed the technology to recapture that energy decades ago, then barred its commercial use in 1977. We have practiced a virtual moratorium ever since.

Other countries have not taken such a backward approach to nuclear power. France, whose 59 reactors generate 80 percent of its electricity, has safely recycled nuclear fuel for decades. They turned to nuclear power in the 1970s to limit their dependence on foreign energy. And, from the beginning, they made recycling used fuel central to their program.







Cincydawg

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Re: Electricity update Pt. 10
« Reply #58 on: August 05, 2020, 08:54:25 PM »
This is not breeder technology, it's nuclear waste reprocessing, which can extract chemically the useful elements from spent nuclear fuel.  One of those elements is plutonium which can be made into weapons grade.  Nixon, as I recall, made reprocessing not available in the US at the time for that reason.

It's well known technology, nothing special about it, and it reduces nuclear waste volumes significantly.


DunkingDan

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Re: Electricity update Pt. 10
« Reply #59 on: August 05, 2020, 09:14:45 PM »
This is what I was thinking of.....

https://www.heritage.org/environment/commentary/recycling-nuclear-fuel-the-french-do-it-why-cant-oui

Recycling Nuclear Fuel: The French Do It, Why Can't Oui?


We recycled at one time, until Carter (  https://www.pbs.org/wgbh/pages/frontline/shows/reaction/readings/rossin.html) stopped it.

One facility was located in Springville, NY ( home of the 25th anniversary playmate if I am not mistaken). Union Carbide ( ORNL) sent my Dad and one other person there to train them in the reprocessing procedure and how to use the equipment. 

Beautiful little village in the mountains. A trout stream ran through the middle of town. During hunting season at lunch a lot of locals walked out of the woods and ate lunch ( yes guns and all). Seems like almost every little place served drinks as well.

The last report I read made it plain if we resumed reprocessing the cost of fuel would drop significantly and that we would never be able to fill Yucca Mtn. with waste as there would be more than sufficient storage that would allow materials to decay and be disposed as non radioactive waste.

We still perform reprocessing on weapons material, for obvious reasons.
« Last Edit: August 05, 2020, 10:41:48 PM by DunkingDan »
President Harry S. Truman said: “The fundamental basis of this nation’s laws was given to Moses on the Mount.  The fundamental basis of our Bill of Rights comes from the teachings…  If we don't have the proper fundamental moral background, we will finally wind up with a totalitarian government which does not believe in rights for anybody except the state.”

HK_Vol

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Re: Electricity update Pt. 10
« Reply #60 on: August 05, 2020, 10:28:42 PM »
Trump should rescind Nixon's order.

Cincydawg

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Re: Electricity update Pt. 10
« Reply #61 on: August 06, 2020, 09:52:44 AM »
I was wrong, it wasn't Nixon, it was Carter.

On April 7, 1977, President Jimmy Carter announced that the United States would defer indefinitely the reprocessing of spent nuclear reactor fuel. ... Today, twenty years later, all U.S. spent fuel remains in storage at each plant where it was used.


DunkingDan

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Jacobs to assist Moltex in development of SSR
« Reply #62 on: August 12, 2020, 05:54:17 PM »
USA-based Jacobs Engineering Group has been selected by Moltex Energy to support its development of the Stable Salt Reactor (SSR), a 300 MWe small modular reactor design. Jacobs will build a bespoke experimental facility for thermal transfer testing at its Birchwood Park research and development facility near Warrington, UK.

The SSR is unlike the original US Molten Salt Reactor Experiment and its descendants, which use fuel dissolved in a molten fluoride or chloride salt, which also functions as the reactor's coolant and operates at atmospheric pressure. UK-based Moltex's design instead holds the molten fuel salt inside fuel pins very similar to those used for normal MOX fuel. Heat transfer from the outside of the fuel pin to the heat exchangers is effectuated by a second, non-fissile molten salt.
Moltex says this eliminates a range of problems associated with ‘traditional’ MSRs, which must handle a hot, highly radioactive fluid of changing chemical composition while ensuring maintainability over the lifetime of the reactor.
Moltex's SSR instead circulates a largely inert coolant salt at atmospheric pressure through the reactor - which it says is much easier to operate and maintain, with leaks presenting much lower risks - whilst having the advantages of a liquid fuel within the pins. The isotropy, even as burn-up progresses, eliminates traditional issues of solid fuel deformation and cladding breaches, as well as avoids the intense local overpressure within the solid fuel from gaseous fission products.
To assist with validation of thermal transfer modelling, Jacobs' chemistry, materials, engineering, instrumentation and modelling teams will collaborate to create a technically complex simulation to replicate the heat output of a fuel channel and to validate computational fluid dynamics modelling of the thermal transfer across the fuel assemblies into the coolant.
Moltex already uses Jacobs' ANSWERS software for radiation transport modelling and simulation of reactor performance.
"We're looking forward to continuing our support for Moltex into this new phase of development as part of our strategy to be a solutions provider at the cutting edge of research into advanced reactors," said Clive White, senior vice president of Jacobs Critical Mission Solutions International. "The Stable Salt Reactor design is significant because of its potential to recycle waste in a clean, safe and economical way, generating electricity which will power communities while reducing carbon emissions."
Moltex has been awarded more than USD6 million in funding from Advanced Research Projects Agency - Energy, a US Department of Energy agency, to help develop the SSR reactor. Moltex is part of the UK government's Advanced Modular Reactor initiative and, through collaboration with NB Power, is progressing with plans to demonstrate the first operational Stable Salt Reactor in New Brunswick, Canada.
Researched and written by World Nuclear News

President Harry S. Truman said: “The fundamental basis of this nation’s laws was given to Moses on the Mount.  The fundamental basis of our Bill of Rights comes from the teachings…  If we don't have the proper fundamental moral background, we will finally wind up with a totalitarian government which does not believe in rights for anybody except the state.”

DunkingDan

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X-energy makes Canadian SMR review submission
« Reply #63 on: August 17, 2020, 03:03:03 PM »
US company X-energy has initiated a Vendor Design Review (VDR) for its Xe-100 small modular reactor design with the Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission (CNSC). Kinetrics will lead X-energy’s Canadian regulatory affairs and licensing efforts.

The regulatory review will demonstrate X-energy's understanding of Canadian requirements and confirm there are no fundamental licensing barriers for the Xe-100 in Canada. The process will also provide the company early feedback to further strengthen its design.
In preparing to site the advanced nuclear technology reactors in Canada, with partners across the Canadian supply chain, X-energy says it has found the "ideal environment" to develop and deploy the 75 MWe reactors, scalable to a 300 MWe four-unit plant.
"The combination of Canada's progressive, risk-informed regulatory framework and its well-established supply chain make Canada an ideal place to site X-energy's first reactor and to create partnerships for a world-class SMR export programme," it said.
The reactor design builds on decades of high-temperature gas reactor operation and R&D. As a result, the VDR submissions reflect a well-advanced design based on inherent and passive safety. Due to the advanced state of design, the VDR is a combined Phase 1 and Phase 2 review, the company said.
The pre-licensing VDR is offered by CNSC as an optional service to assess a nuclear power plant design based on a vendor's reactor technology. It is not a required part of the licensing process for a new nuclear power plant, but aims to verify the acceptability of a design with respect to Canadian nuclear regulatory requirements and expectations. The three phases of the VDR process involve: a pre-licensing assessment of compliance with regulatory requirements; an assessment of any potential fundamental barriers to licensing; and a follow-up phase allowing the vendor to respond to findings from the second phase.
The Xe-100 is a 200 MWt (75 MWe) reactor, which X-energy envisages being built as a standard "four-pack" plant generating about 300 MWe. The plant will use 'pebbles' of fuel containing Triso fuel particles. Each Triso particle has a kernel of uranium oxycarbide (also known as UCO) enriched to 15.5% uranium-235, encased in carbon and ceramic layers which prevent the release of radioactivity. The layers provide each particle with its own independent containment system, while the graphite surrounding the particles moderates the nuclear reaction. Such fuel cannot melt down.
Researched and written by World Nuclear News

President Harry S. Truman said: “The fundamental basis of this nation’s laws was given to Moses on the Mount.  The fundamental basis of our Bill of Rights comes from the teachings…  If we don't have the proper fundamental moral background, we will finally wind up with a totalitarian government which does not believe in rights for anybody except the state.”

HK_Vol

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Re: Electricity update Pt. 10
« Reply #64 on: August 18, 2020, 02:57:00 AM »

DunkingDan

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SMR developer and engineering firm to collaborate on helium technology
« Reply #65 on: August 25, 2020, 03:31:13 PM »
Share
UK-based company Howden is to design a helium circulator for use in Ultra Safe Nuclear Corporation's (USNC) Micro-Modular Reactors (MMR) under a newly announced contract. USNC said Howden's submerged helium blowers would maximise heat transfer in the MMR's power plant.

Howden products are proven components in the nuclear industry and have for decades been deployed in a variety of reactor designs including pressurised water reactors and advanced gas-cooled reactors, USNC said.
"Our contract with Howden is a strategic investment that marries the inherent safety of our MMR with proven equipment that will make the overall system simpler, less expensive, and more reliable," USNC-Power President Mark Mitchell said.
The MMR energy system consists of two plants: a nuclear plant, which contains the MMR reactors, and an adjacent power plant, which converts heat from the reactors to electricity or process heat as required. The system is designed to be uniquely simple, with minimal operations and maintenance requirements, and no on-site fuel storage, handling, or processing, USNC said. The reactor is a 15 MW thermal, 5 MW electrical high-temperature gas-cooled reactor, using USNC's Fully Ceramic Microencapsulated fuel with helium gas as the coolant. Multiple MMR reactors can be linked together to provide between 5 MW and 50 MW of electricity, up to 150 MW of heat, or a combination of the two.
The MMR is in the third stage of Canadian Nuclear Laboratories' four-stage process to site a demonstration small modular reactor at the Chalk River Laboratories site in Ontario. USNC said it will collaborate with Howden's engineering and design team to maximise heat-transfer efficiencies and plans to incorporate the Howden submerged blower into the MMR project at Chalk River.
Researched and written by World Nuclear News

President Harry S. Truman said: “The fundamental basis of this nation’s laws was given to Moses on the Mount.  The fundamental basis of our Bill of Rights comes from the teachings…  If we don't have the proper fundamental moral background, we will finally wind up with a totalitarian government which does not believe in rights for anybody except the state.”

HK_Vol

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Re: Electricity update Pt. 10
« Reply #66 on: August 25, 2020, 10:13:49 PM »
First six months of 2020 for the US:
Coal:  17.1%
Wind:  9.2%
Solar: 3.4%

Electricity from coal in 1H 2020 was half the amount generated in 1H 2014.
(But AOC says the country isn't moving fast enough....right).

The Northeast (New England + New York + New Jersey) = 0.5% from coal
West Coast (Washington, Oregon, Idaho, California) = 1.0% from coal

Six States (West Virginia, Kentucky, Missouri, Ohio, Indiana, Texas) burned 42.5% of all coal consumed in the US in the first half of 2020.

Texas burned more coal than any other state, yet generated 60% more electricity from wind+solar than it did from coal.  Coal was 14.8% of electricity produced while wind was 22% and solar was 1.7%.


« Last Edit: August 25, 2020, 10:19:02 PM by HK_Vol »

HK_Vol

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HK_Vol

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Re: Electricity update Pt. 10
« Reply #68 on: August 26, 2020, 04:14:43 AM »
Coal consumption has increased in the past couple of months to around 23% of electricity vs. just under 18% in the first half of the year.  Why?  Natty prices have risen while coal prices have been flat.  Coal is now slightly cheaper to burn than natural gas.



Chart from ARC Energy

HK_Vol

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Re: Electricity update Pt. 10
« Reply #69 on: August 26, 2020, 04:17:23 AM »
Of course, it depends on which part of the country you are talking about.  I'm guessing they're burning more coal in Wyoming and less in Pennsylvania....



Chart from ARC Energy


 

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